management techniques and processes

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Leadership & Management

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GradSkul/First Trimester



2. What is Management?One way of looking at management isthrough people who compose the organization. Inthis manner, it may be considered as the peopleresponsible for the actions in the organization.Management is the planning, deciding, or exercisingof control and supervision on some functions of theorganization. 3. Management process is working with thepeople. The people are organized in formal groups toachieve desired goals necessary to maximize theutilization of the available resources of theorganizations. On the whole, it requires the manager tobe systematic in undertaking his managerial functionsand exercising his organizational authority. Hence, heshould be primarily concerned with the managementprocess, represented by the symbol POSDCORB(planning, organizing, staffing, directing, co-ordinating,reporting and budgeting)as recommended by LutherGulick, an American management consultant. 4. Management Processes Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Controlling 5. The leader, manager or administrator plays animportant role in planning, organizing, staffing, directingand controlling. He concerns himself with the social andindividual needs of working group; how the memberrelates to one another in an organizational context. Loyaltyto the organization and commitment to its goals aregenerally by products of effective management andleaderships, whether good services marketed by publicenterprises or services performed and delivered tocommunities by units of government not measurable inmonetary terms. 6. Leaderships and Human MotivationLeadership is subject that has arousedthe interest of scholars and laymen as well.Ralph M. Stogdill, in his researches onleadership theories, points out that there canbe as many definitions as there are peoplewanting to define the concept. (1)Leadership can be regarded as an influenceprocess, since a leader may be called upon tolive a life demonstrating fullness of what hebelieves in, thus making him a good examplefor followers. 7. (2) Leaderships occurs when one personinfluence another and convinces him todo a thing to achieve something.Influence may range from persuasion tothe use of coercion to get things done.The ability to structure social interactionsystems and accomplish what is proposedto be achieved creates personalitydynamics needed by one seekingleadership responsibilities. 8. (3) Leader is expected to perform certain compositeactivities like motivating, assisting them inidentifying their goals, setting the principles formanaging and supervising them, and developing theirawareness of the consequences of behavior.Leaderships, in its ideal sense, should bevoluntarily and freely accepted in recognition ofones moral right to lead, complemented by hisknowledge and capability to direct and guide others. 9. Theories of Leadership and Leadership Behavior Trait Theory Behavioral Theory Contingency Theory 10. There are two well-known situational theoriesof leaderships:Fiedlers contingency theory: Three situational determinants of power and influences ofleaders.First, is a leader-subordinates relation. When a leader is desired, respectedand trusted and is able to elicit loyalty and commitment from subordinates, that leader isinvested with influence and power.Second, is the structuring of tasks. When assignments are well-structured andspelled out clearly, the leader becomes more influential to his subordinates than when tasksto be performed are vaguely stated and poorly structured.Third, is power position. This refers to the ability of the leader to makesubordinates comply with and accept directions and orders, when a leader can fire anddiscipline subordinates, we say he has power and influence over them arising from theposition he holds 11. b. House path-goal approachRobert House proposed this situational approachtheory of leaderships because he believes that the mainfunctions of leaders are to set goals and direct the path ofsubordinates to these goals. In uncertain and fluid situations,the task oriented and autocratic style of leaderships ispreferred.Leadership behavior is affected by three factors:a. Value orientation of the manager or leaderb. Value orientation of the subordinatesc. Situational factors 12. Qualifying Leadersa. Possession of ascriptive qualitiesb. Popular choicec. Appointmentd. Force 13. Decision Making and PolicyDecision-Making is deciding what should be done and how it should be donebrings problems to managers. According to Robert Tannenbaum, decision-making involvesconscious choice of one behavioral alternative from number of behavioral alternatives. It isconcerned with policy issues; to decide an issue involves subjective judgment and individualpreference.Two personalities are involved in decision-making in an organization: theprivate personality of the individual decision-maker and the personality of the organizationof which he is a member or an officer. Deciding for an organization cannot be a personalresponsibility until officially assigned. Personal decisions cannot be delegated. Whoeverexercises the authority to decide, articulates his private personality in the decisionalternative he has chosen. Yet the decision therefore results in authoritative communicationto different persons at different levels of the organizational hierarchy or outside of theorganization itself depending upon who are intended to be affected by it, positively ornegatively. 14. Nature of the Decision EnvironmentThe type of decision and the conditions for decision-making changefrom time to time. There are occasions when a decision has to be done by highlevel executive; in like manner, there are those which are done at the non-executivelevel. Generally, top executives make decision relating to ends andobjectives.Planning as Decision-MakingPlanning refers to be construction of program, formula or alternativemodel to be used as basis for a course of action or decision. Its essence isprognosis or forecasting, whether short-term or long-term. A plan is a tentativeschedule with target dates of completion, which when implemented, lessensdoubt and uncertainty. A plan should consider clientele needs and demands aswell as observed priorities. 15. Planning by the government generally includesthe following:a. Identification of peoples desires and needsb. Determination of national developmentthrustsc. Programming and program implementationd. Program review and evaluation 16. Options and Constraints in Decision-MakingInstitutional and Policy DecisionsEffective policy is an outcome of strategic interactions more than individualchoices. While institutions influence policy and decision-making, these cannot fullydetermine policy choices. As a matter of fact the institutions define a set of constraintswhich limit feasible choices. Choice may be opted for by political actors using their normsand egoistic interests as criteria. Differences in situational constraint explain differences inpolicy choices. Choice of goals by a political scientist differs from that of an economist. Theformer may have a structuralist interest and the latter may be client-oriented.Institutions set rules which limit interaction of participants in the policy process.Yet similar institutions work differently societies at different time. These are situationalvariables which can go beyond the control of the decision-maker. On the other hand, similarpolicy choices may be produced under dissimilar institutional arrangement. 17. Theodore C. Sorensen cited five outer limits of presidential decision-making in theUnited States.a. Permissibility- this includes constitutional and statutory provisions which set theparameters of the legally allowable; constraints arising out the reactions ofconstituencies and foreign government.b. Available resources like manpower, financial viability and material assets at thedisposal of the executive.c. Previous commitments like obligations arising from treaties and other agreement;programs stated by predecessors but need to be completed; presidentialproclamations; commitments broadcast in the state of the nation address;commitments to party leaders who helped to deliver votes which spelled victory.d. Available time- deadlines which undercut evaluation of on-going programs; crisissituations which require immediate attention and action are two important things toconsider.e. Available information whether quantitative; true or false, sufficient, to provide a firmbasis for decision. 18. Decision-Making StyleAt the top executive level, decision-making goes beyondinternal matters of the organization. The decision-maker shouldunderstand that there are other inputs to his role, like politicalleadership and the necessary skills that can be employed within thepolitical system itself and the social system as a whole.Philip Selznick suggests four things vital to decisionmaking. There is need to know (a) the institutional mission whichrefers to the setting of goals, (b) embodiment of purpose of theorganization which relates to the capability to build policy into thesocial structure of the organization, (c) defense of the integrity of theinstitutions its values and identity included, (d) ability to resolveinternal conflicts in the organization. 19. What is Policy?A policy is a choice of a course of action, actual or perceived. It is morecomprehensive that decisions because it provides the framework within which particular andspecific decisions are made. In certain ways, it is an aggregation of particular decisions, acumulative result of incremental choices of action. It may refer to a program of goal valuesand the accompanying practices that help attain the goal values.Public policy is a composite of decisions that government makes and programs itembarks upon or implements to achieve goals. As a definite course of action taken fromamong a number of alternatives, the choices consider situational factors and organizationalgivens. There is alway


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