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<p>Table of content</p> <p>21.Introduction</p> <p>41.1Problem statement</p> <p>41.2Objectives and scope of the study</p> <p>51.3Methodology</p> <p>61.4Significance</p> <p>72.Literature Review</p> <p>72.1Safety Management</p> <p>72.1.1The ESSENCE of safety management</p> <p>82.1.2Objectives of safety management system</p> <p>92.1.3The challenges in safety management:</p> <p>102.1.4Factors affecting the safety performance of construction contractors</p> <p>112.1.5Development of Contractors safety performance indicators</p> <p>2.1.6Safety Performance Indicators.....13</p> <p>162.2Industrial accidents and its prevention program</p> <p>162.2.1Near miss incident reporting system (NMIRS)</p> <p>172.2.2Accidents investigation principles</p> <p>182.2.3Routine monitoring of industrial safety</p> <p>2.3Safety Management Program at Saudi ARAMCO Berri gas plant202.3.1Background of the CASE study202.3.2BGP Safety Management Program212.3.3Near miss incident reporting system (NIRS) at BGP23242.4Some safety standards for Questionnaire design</p> <p>283.Case study of Safety PROGRAMS of two contractors at Aramco - BGP</p> <p>283.1Qatif Project (BI 3022)</p> <p>3.2Ethane recovery (BI 3150)30334.Questionnaire Design</p> <p>435.Conclusions and recommendations</p> <p>45REFERENCES</p> <p>1.Introduction</p> <p>Safety, as a concept and practice, is in transition. It has shifted form what once was little more than plain-sense approach to eliminating agents of injury to what now is quite often a complex methodology for the reliable control of harm. Within the boundaries of safetys emerging abilities exists a capacity for more than simply the detection of causative relationship and design of practical controls. These have been safety program routines practically since their inception, and the skills involved have increased with each succeeding year. </p> <p>The current shift occurs in the growing awareness of and ability to meet the need for affecting the wanted controls. This seems to be an ordinary, expected outcome. However, common experience reminds us that injurious occurrences are repeated despite knowledge of their causes or the availability of recommended controls. Indeed, implementation difficulties have been the critical problem for safety control programs. (Ref 4:17)</p> <p>Safety is a humanitarian as well as an important issue in development progress. No body wants to hurt others to be troublemaker however, without rules that govern the miss act or irresponsibility it is going to be easy for people to commit safety violations. In addition to the assets value loss resulting from unsafe damage, some of the safety violations are very serious and may well cause serious unrecoverable consequences. </p> <p>According to Roth (Ref:1), an effective safety program or safety plan could help allot in solving, reducing or eliminating these consequences caused by those safety violation. Unfortunately, safety in often neglected on working sites where getting the work done the work is the first priority. Safety issues are always discussed in companies meetings but actually it takes a low priority to schedule and budget discussions. </p> <p>Safety should be an integral part of the total business activities of an enterprise. This should be reflected in the overall management instruments for the enterprise and for the individual sites. Furthermore, safety issues should be addressed as part of the overall corporate Safety, Health and Environment (Safety) policies, as well as in the development of safety management systems and safety goals and objectives. In this regard, management should establish a corporate safety culture that is reflected in the Safety Policy and ensures all employees are aware of their roles and responsibilities with respect to safety. The most important factor for achieving a safe workplace is the belief by all personnel and others involved in the operation that safety is critical. This includes the intention to act consistently with this belief, and the genuinely safe behavior by all. Such a result is founded in the safety culture created by management in co-operation with other employees. (Ref: 18)</p> <p>The field of industrial safety encompasses a broad range of issues including the safety of electric power, gas utility, and various forms of heat supply, explosives, high-pressure gas, LPG, and mines. It is the foremost duty of the administrative authority and their responsibility for industrial safety with utilizing their experience in these diverse fields, which play such a critical role in people's everyday lives and industrial activities. They should improve the industrial safety regulation more effective and efficient as well as to promote self-imposed safety activities, because of improvement in licensees' and industries' capabilities and requests for future regulation streamlining and international conformity of technical standards.</p> <p>According to Dan Peterson (Ref: 2), he stated that it is only in recent years that most safety professionals have been able to define their role in safety work that is being accomplished. What they do have changed and will continue to results can be affect3ed by dealing with root causes, safety professionals must learn to work well below the symptomatic level.</p> <p>If accidents are caused by management safety weakness, safety professionals must learn to locate and define these weaknesses. They must evolve methods for doing this. This may or may not lead them to do the things they did in past. Inspection may remain one of their tools-or it may not. Investigation may be one of their tools or it may not. Certainly safety professionals must use new tools and modernize old tools, for their direction is different today, their duties must also be different. </p> <p>1.1Problem statement</p> <p>The safety programs in any construction contractors dont function efficiently, though they have their own safety management programs. It needs to have certain evaluation for the main construction company to evaluate thoroughly the safety programs of their contracting companies in order to assure safe and healthy completion of the assigned project. Here the case of Berri Gas Plant of ARAMCO, it needs an assessment tool which could evaluate different indicators of the contractors safety management program according to its safety needs.1.2Objectives and scope of the study</p> <p>The ultimate goal for every enterprise should be to have zero incidents. This goal provides the incentive to achieve the best possible performance and ensures continuous vigilance towards greater safety. Seeking to achieve this goal and managing safety requires a constant effort that involves establishing safety-related objectives, implementing those objectives, and measuring and reviewing progress in meeting those objectives. This should be reflected in the long-term, overall Safety Policy. In order to ensure day-to-day implementation of the Policy, concrete goals and objectives should be established and agreed upon by the entire organization.</p> <p>The general objective of this research project is to study the factors which affect the overall safety performance of the industrial construction contractors in Saudi Arabian context. This is to provide a tool for measurement for the contractors to plan the safety measures and integrate the safety concerns in the construction process.</p> <p>Specifically, the objectives of this project are</p> <p>1. To study the various safety measures of any industrial contracting project, and list out its salient features and to draw some indicators to measure the safety performance of any industrial contractor.</p> <p>2. To review the safety measures for two contractors at Berri Gas Plant at Saudi ARAMCO during their contracts with the client and compare the safety measures programs of the individual contractor to that of the ARAMCOs;</p> <p>3. To design a questionnaire this acts as a tool in assessing the contractors safety measurement programs with that of its clients. And also this questionnaire helps in finding out the efficiency of the safety implementation programs of the contracting companies, which helps in improvisation of its programs.</p> <p>The scope of this study is limited to BGP at ARAMCO situated at Jubail industrial area, and with two contractors; one is dealing with Qatif project and the other one with Ethan Recovery project.</p> <p>1.3MethodologyThe methodology of this project is on the lines of the objectives stated. The initial part of the project is done by literature review; in the first part of literature review some standards measures of any industrial safety management system are discussed. Also the objectives and challenges for a management system are listed out. The next step is to discuss the factors affecting contractors safety performance and the indicators in developing the contractors safety performance; to have a clear idea of the contractors safety program. Also the accident prevention program is discussed in order to describe the routine industrial safety prevention program.</p> <p>The next phase of the project mentions briefly the safety programs and measures under taken by the ARAMCO Berri gas plant. And then to study the safety programs of the two contracting companies that build two big projects at BGP namely Ethan recovery plant (F 20 BI 3150), and Qatif Plant ( BI 3022). Based on this study the drawbacks in their safety programs are found out.</p> <p>The final stage of the project is to design the questionnaire, while design of the questionnaire certain safety performance indicators are considered so as to measure correctly the required task. These indicators will be mentioned clearly in the design process of the questionnaire. Also the questionnaire design considers the ARAMCO safety standards.1.4SignificanceThe output of the project is the questionnaire, which is a measuring device for the client, here ARAMCO. It can measure the efficiency of the safety program of the contractors who plea to work on any construction project, so significantly it helps in ensuring safe and healthy project execution. 2.Literature Review</p> <p>This part of project deals with some conceptual and theoretical background of the issues related to the safety management. Initially we would like to discuss the objective and duties of a safety management system. Then list out some of the safety management program adopted at BGP in different sectors, and then in the later part of the project it would be compared on the basis of a standard safety management program.</p> <p>2.1Safety ManagementAll enterprises should have safety management systems, as part of their overall management of the enterprises (in fact, there is a clear correlation between safely-run enterprises and well-managed operations). A safety management system provides a structured approach to those arrangements needed to achieve good safety performance within an enterprise. It should be based on the Safety Policy. The system should define an ambition level that the enterprise considers adequate for its business, as well as the safety concerns and requirements specific to their sites. As a minimum, the requirements of the legislation and other imperative sources should, under all circumstances, be fulfilled. (Ref 4:36)</p> <p>2.1.1The ESSENCE of safety management</p> <p>A number of factors add difficulty to the safety problem, but none may be more troublesome than the universal failure to see that the hazard control problem frequently is quite complex. Safety therefore often is viewed largely as a simple matter of applying specific routines. In many cases the routines are repeatedly regular despite obvious signs of their weakness. Greatly needed is an understanding that the sources of harm, which the safety specialty should be able to control, have basic origins although their consequences will differ in character and severity. This view furnishes the realization that hazards are not simply the agents most closely identified with injuries. Merely regulating them is not the sure way to limit their effect. In fact it is necessary first to employ a means of controlling the causes responsible for the presence of injurious agents. This in essence is the practice of safety management. (Ref 9:5)</p> <p>2.1.2Objectives of safety management system</p> <p>The primary objectives of safety management systems are to regulate formally the activities of the enterprise in order that they are carried out safely, to continually improve safety performance, and to support a strong safety culture. Additional benefits of a safety management system include: (Ref 8:19) More efficient production and maintenance with fewer operating disturbances, releases, less absenteeism, etc.;</p> <p> More efficient project management and smoother start-up by incorporating safety considerations at an early stage;</p> <p> Improved relations and increased reputation within the enterprise among employees and union organizations and with external stakeholders (public authorities, the public, the community, media, customers, other enterprises, etc.).To develop and implement an efficient safety management system, which address the following subjects, as listed below:</p> <p> Organizational structure (including the roles, responsibilities, training, education, qualifications, and inter-relationship of individuals involved in work affecting safety);</p> <p> Identification and evaluation of hazards;</p> <p> Facilities and operational control;</p> <p> Management of change;</p> <p> Planning for emergencies;</p> <p> Monitoring performance (concerning the ongoing assessment of compliance with the Safety Policy and safety management system, and mechanisms for taking corrective action in the event of non-compliance);</p> <p> Audit and review (addressing the periodic, systematic assessment of the Safety Policy and effectiveness and suitability of the safety management system); and</p> <p> Accident investigation and learning from experience.</p> <p>2.1.3The challenges in safety management:</p> <p>Control requires action, but the steps that are taken must be acceptable. They have to meet the objective without interfering significantly with other aims that may affected. Often, it seems that safetys requirements conflict with fiscal restraints, convenience, or other factors. When the necessity for safe action is seen to be great enough, it may pre-empt other needs. Even then, however, other priorities must be considered and controls for safety may not be optimized. (Ref 9:6,7)</p> <p>Recently the growing demand for safety and safety regulations has been shaken by strong public insistence on inflation control and increased productivity to be competitive in world markets. Obviously, the implementation of safety depends on information and judgment. Decision in its behalf is made according to what is known about the problem it presents. Unfortunately knowledge about the safety programs and implementation procedures are still in gravel limited. One significant area of inadequacy lies within the procedure for classifying the results of safety violation; normally they are called as accidents, which is an inadequate label. (R...</p>