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  • IMPROVING ON THE NETWORK LIFETIME OF CLUSTERED-BASED

    WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK USING MODIFIED LEACH ALGORITHM

    SALTIHIE BIN ZENI

    A project report submitted in

    fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the

    Degree of Master of Electrical Engineering

    Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

    JULAI 2012

  • v

    ABSTRACT

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed from a large number of sensor node

    with the ability to sense and process data in the physical world in a timely manner.

    The sensor nodes contain a battery constraint which limit the network lifetime. Due

    to energy constraints, the deployment of WSNs will required advance techniques to

    maintain the network lifetime. A clustering based routing algorithm called Low-

    Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) was proposed as a solution for low

    power consumption. This document is a study about LEACH algorithm where the

    implementation was done using OMNeT++ network simulator to study the

    performance of this algorithm in term of network lifetime. OMNeT++ was selected

    as a simulator because it provides some important features for this project like very

    good scalability unlike other simulators do. During this study, LEACH algorithm

    shows some drawbacks that need an improvements to overcome it as to improve the

    performance. Then, the modified LEACH algorithm was proposed where the

    improvement was done in cluster head selection based on LEACH. In cluster head

    selection, modified LEACH taking into account the residual energy of each node for

    calculation of the threshold value for next round. Meanwhile in LEACH, the cluster

    head selection was based on distributed algorithm. Both of these protocols was

    implemented in network simulator to compare the performance. This study shows

    that there were a better performance achieved by modified LEACH depends on the

    results obtained.

  • vi

    ABSTRAK

    Rangkaian sensor tanpa wayar terdiri daripada sejumlah besar nod sensor dengan

    kebolehan untuk mengesan data dalam dunia fizikal tepat pada masanya. Nod sensor

    dikuasakan oleh bateri yang menyebabkan terdapat had untuk jangka hayat

    rangkaian. Disebabkan oleh masalah tenaga, penempatan rangkaian sensor tanpa

    wayar ini memerlukan teknik yang baik bagi mengekalkan jangka hayat rangkaian.

    Protokol yang berasaskan kepada algoritma kelompok yang dikenali sebagai Low-

    Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) telah diperkenalkan sebagai

    penyelesaian untuk penggunaan tenaga yang rendah. Dokumen ini ialah kajian

    mengenai algoritma LEACH di mana perlaksanaannya di lakukan dengan

    menggunakan simulator rangkain OMNeT++ untuk mengkaji prestasi algoritma ini

    dalam bentuk jangka hayat rangkaian. OMNeT++ dipilih sebagai simulator kerana ia

    menyediakan ciri-ciri yang penting untuk projek ini seperti skalabiliti yang baik tidak

    seperti simulator yang lain. Dalam perlaksanaan kajian ini, algoritma LEACH

    menunjukkan beberapa kelemahan yang memerlukan penambahbaikan untuk

    mengatasinya serta meningkatkan prestasinya. Kemudian, LEACH yang diubahsuai

    telah diperkenalkan dimana penambahbaikan telah dilaksanakan dari segi pemilihan

    ketua kelompok yang berdasarkan kepada LEACH. Dalam pemilihan ketua

    kelompok, LEACH yang di ubahsuai mengambil kira baki tenaga setiap nod untuk

    pengiraan nilai ambang untuk kitaran berikutnya. Sementara dalam LEACH,

    pemilihan ketua berdasarkan kepada algoritma pembahagian. Kedua-dua protokol

    telah dilaksanakan dalam simulator rangkaian untuk membandingkan prestasinya.

    Kajian menunjukkan prestasi yang baik dicapai oleh LEACH yang di ubahsuai

    berdasarkan keputusan yang diperolehi.

  • vii

    CONTENTS

    TITLE i

    DECLARATION ii

    DEDICATION iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

    ABSTRACT v

    ABSTRAK vi

    CONTENTS vii

    LIST OF TABLES x

    LIST OF FIGURES xi

    LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xii i

    LIST OF APPENDICES xiv

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Motivation 1

    1.2 Description 2

    1.2.1 Wireless Sensor Networks 3

    1.2.2 Advantages of Wireless Sensor Networks 4

    1.2.3 Drawback of Wireless Sensor Networks 4

    1.3 Objectives 5

    1.4 Thesis Outline 6

    CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 Introduction 7

    2.2 A Wireless Sensor Network Model 8

    2.2.1 Protocol Architecture 9

    2.2.1.1 OSI Model 9

    2.2.1.2 TCP/IP Model 10

    2.2.2 MAC Protocol 10

    2.3 Classification of Wireless Sensor Network 17

  • viii

    2.3.1 Proactive Network 17

    2.3.2 Reactive Network 17

    2.3.3 Hybrid Network 17

    2.4 Routing Protocol 18

    2.4.1 Network Structure Based Protocol 19

    2.4.1.1 Flat Routing 19

    2.4.1.2 Hierarchical Routing 26

    2.4.1.3 Location Based Routing 28

    2.4.2 Protocol Operation Based Protocol 29

    2.4.2.1 Multipath Routing Protocols 29

    2.4.2.2 Query Based Routing 30

    2.4.2.3 Negotiation Based Routing Protocols 31

    2.4.2.4 QoS-Based Routing 31

    2.4.2.5 Coherent and Non-coherent Processing 32

    2.5 Conclusion 33

    CHAPTER 3: NETWORK SIMULATOR

    3.1 Introduction 34

    3.2 Comparison of Network Simulator 34

    3.2.1 Network Simulator NS-2 34

    3.2.2 TOSSIM 35

    3.2.3 OPNET 35

    3.2.4 OMNeT++ 36

    3.2.5 Advantages of OMNeT++ 36

    3.3 Description of OMNeT++ Simulator 37

    3.3.1 Overview 37

    3.3.2 Modeling Concept 37

    3.3.3 OMNeT++ Integrated Developement Environment 39

    3.3.4 Running a Simulation 39

    3.4 Wireless Sensor Networks Simulation Model 40

    3.4.1 Network Model 41

    3.4.2 Node Model 42

    3.5 Conclusion 43

    CHAPTER 4: IMPLEMENTATION OF ROUTING PROTOCOL

    4.1 Introduction 44

  • ix

    4.2 The LEACH Protocol 45

    4.2.1 Description of LEACH Algorithm 45

    4.2.1.1 Cluster Head Algorithm Selection 46

    4.2.1.2 Cluster Set-Up Phase 50

    4.2.1.3 Schedule Creation 51

    4.2.1.4 Data Transmission 51

    4.2.2 Limitation in LEACH 52

    4.2.3 Implementation of LEACH Algorihtm 53

    4.2.3.1 LEACH NED Implementation 54

    4.2.3.2 LEACH C++ Implementation 54

    4.2.3.3 Initialization of the module network parameters 55

    4.3 The Modified LEACH Protocol 55

    4.3.1 Overview 55

    4.3.2 Modified LEACH Description 56

    4.3.2.1 Set-up Phase 57

    4.3.2.2 Steady State Phase 57

    4.3.2.3 Pre Set-up Phase 58

    4.3.3 Implementation of Modified LEACH 58

    4.4 Conclusion 61

    CHAPTER 5: EVALUATION OF RESULTS

    5.1 Introduction 62

    5.2 Simulation Parameters 62

    5.2.1 Parameters for Simulation Testing 64

    5.3 LEACH and Modified LEACH Results and Analysis 65

    5.3.1 First Node Dead (FND) 65

    5.3.2 Half Node Dead (HND) 69

    5.3.3 Effect of Number of Node to the Network Lifetime 74

    5.3.4 Improvement of Modified LEACH 77

    5.3.5 Distribution of energy in LEACH and modified LEACH 78

    5.4 Conclusion 79

    CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION

    6.1 Conclusion 80

    6.2 Future Work 81

    REFERENCES 82

  • x

    LIST OF TABLES

    5.1 Parameters for simulation 63

    5.2 Improvement of network lifetime in (%) over LEACH 78

    for first node dead

    5.3 Improvement of network lifetime in (%) over LEACH 79

    for half node dead

  • xi

    LIST OF FIGURES

    1.1 Smart sensor architecture 2

    2.1 Wireless sensor network architecture 8

    2.2 A comparison of the OSI and TCP/IP protocol architecture 9

    2.3 SMAC messaging scenario 12

    2.4 WiseMAC concept 13

    2.5 A data gathering tree and its DMAC implementation 15

    2.6 DSMAC duty cycle dubling 16

    2.7 Classification of routing protocols in WSNs 18

    2.8 The implosion problem 21

    2.9 The SPIN-PP protocol 22

    2.10 A schematic for Directed Diffusion 24

    3.1 Simple and compound modules of an OMNeT++ network 38

    3.2 OMNeT++ main window 41

    3.3 Wireless sensor network model 41

    3.4 Tier-based node model 42

    4.1 The LEACH protocol for Wireless Sensor Network 45

    4.2 Flowchart for LEACH algorithm set-up phase 50

    4.3 LEACH operation time-line 52

    4.4 Flowchart of the steady-state operation for LEACH 53

    4.5 Graphical and source view for LEACH implementation in 54

    GNED editor

    4.6 Modified LEACH algorithm TDMA frame 58

    4.7 Pre set-up phase for modified LEACH algorithm 59

    5.1 First order radio model 63

    5.2 omnetpp.ini file for parameter setting 65

    5.3 Number of rounds when the first node dead in LEACH 67

    and modified LEACH for 5 frames with different BS

  • xii

    distance

    5.4 Number