The Skeletal System Chapter 6. Skeletal System Introduction Functions of the skeleton Framework of bones The skeleton through life

Download The Skeletal System Chapter 6. Skeletal System Introduction Functions of the skeleton Framework of bones The skeleton through life

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<ul><li><p>The Skeletal SystemChapter 6</p></li><li><p>Skeletal SystemIntroductionFunctions of the skeletonFramework of bonesThe skeleton through life </p></li><li><p>Functions of the SkeletonSupportProtectionMovementStorage areasMineralsLipids HemopoiesisRed marrow</p></li><li><p>Histology of BonesBone = osseous tissue (connective tissue)Intercellular substanceHydroxyapatite crystalsCollagenous fibers</p></li><li><p>Anatomy of a Long Bone</p><p>Diaphysis shaftEpiphysis extremity of boneArticular cartilage covers epiphysisPeriosteum covering around surface of boneMedullary cavity marrow cavity in diaphysisEndosteum lines medullary cavity</p></li><li><p>The Periosteum</p><p>Two layersFibrous layerOsteogenic layerOsteoblasts</p></li><li><p>The Endosteum</p><p>Single layerOsteoclastsOsteoblasts</p></li><li><p>Structure of Bone Tissue</p><p>PoresLiving cellsChannels for blood vesselsDecrease weight of boneDegree of porositySpongy (cancellous) boneCompact bone</p></li><li><p>Compact Bone</p><p>Haversian system (Osteon)Volkmanns canalsHaversian canalsLamellaeLacunaeCanaliculi</p></li><li><p>Spongy BoneComposed of trabeculaePenetrated by blood vessels from periosteum</p></li><li><p>OssificationEmbryo skeletonBegins as cartilage &amp; membraneBone formation begins about 6 weeks after fertilization2 typesIntramembranous ossificationEndochondral ossification</p></li><li><p>Ossification1st stage embryonic mesenchyme cells migrate into future bone sitesBecome chondroblasts orBecome osteoblasts</p></li><li><p>Intramembranous OssificationMostly in flat bonesOsteoblasts in the fibrous membrane secrete intercellular substances (matrix)Matrix becomes mineralizedFormation of spongy boneOriginal layer of connective tissue remains as periosteum</p></li><li><p>Intramembranous Ossification </p></li><li><p>Intramembranous Ossification </p></li><li><p>Intramembranous Ossification </p></li><li><p>Endochondral OssificationOccurs within a hyaline cartilage modelOccurs in most bones of the bodyPeriosteum forms at about week 8Calcification begins in center of diaphysisPrimary ossification centerSecondary ossification centers at epiphysesMedullary cavity forms</p></li><li><p>Endochondral Ossification </p></li><li><p>Endochondral Ossification </p></li><li><p>Fetus. 10 weeks</p></li><li><p>Fetus, 16 weeks</p></li><li><p>Remaining CartilageArticular cartilageEpiphyseal plateBone grows in length</p></li><li><p>HomeostasisRemodelingDifferent rates in bodyBalance between osteoclasts and osteoblastsFactors affecting bone growthCalcium &amp; phosphorus in dietVitamins A, C, &amp; DHormonesGrowth hormone, thyroxineCalcitoninParathyroid hormoneSex hormones</p></li><li><p>Fracture RepairHematoma formationFormation of fibrocartilagenous callusFormation of bony callusRemodeling of bony callus</p></li><li><p>Fracture Repair </p></li><li><p>DisordersVitamin deficienciesScurvyRicketsOsteoporosis</p></li><li><p>Scurvyhttp://www.pathguy.com/lectures/nejm_scurvy.gif</p></li><li><p>Scurvy Blood Vessels</p></li><li><p>Ricketshttp://bioe.eng.utoledo.edu/adms_staffs/akkus/2003_WEB_PROJECTS/hormone/vitamin_d.htm</p></li><li><p>Osteoporosis</p><p>FG05_05A.JPGTitle: A Three-Dimensional View of the Intramembranous OssificationNotes: Stepwise formation of intramembranous bone from mesenchymal cell aggregation to spongy bone; spongy bone might form compact bone.Keywords: ossification, osteocyte, matirx, osteoblast, osteod, mesenchyme, stem cell, spicules, osteoblast</p><p>FG05_05B.JPGTitle: A Three-Dimensional View of the Intramembranous OssificationNotes: Stepwise formation of intramembranous bone from mesenchymal cell aggregation to spongy bone; spongy bone might form compact bone.Keywords: ossification, osteocyte, matirx, osteoblast, osteod, mesenchyme, stem cell, spicules, osteoblast</p><p>FG05_05C.JPGTitle: A Three-Dimensional View of the Intramembranous OssificationNotes: Stepwise formation of intramembranous bone from mesenchymal cell aggregation to spongy bone; spongy bone might form compact bone.Keywords: ossification, osteocyte, matirx, osteoblast, osteod, mesenchyme, stem cell, spicules, osteoblast</p><p>FG05_07A.JPGTitle: Endochondral OssificationNotes: Steps in the formation of a long bone.Keywords: chondrocytes, matrix, epiphysis, diaphysis, osteogenic, marrow, periosteal, spongy bone, metaphysis, ossification</p><p>FG05_07B.JPGTitle: Endochondral OssificationNotes: Light micrograph showing the zones of cartilage ad the advancing osteoblasts at a epiphyseal plate.Keywords: osteoblasts, osteoid, marrow cavity, epiphyseal cartilage matrix, cartilage cells, zone of proliferation, zone of hypertrophy</p><p>FG05_11.JPGTitle: Fracture RepairNotes: Steps involved in the repair of a fracture.Keywords: spongy bone, callus, periosteum, hematoma</p></li></ul>

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