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Struggles in Africa Chapter 17 Section 2

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  • Struggles in Africa

    Chapter 17

    Section 2

  • South Africa

  • Apartheid in South Africa

    In the 1950s and 1960s, many new nations won independence in Africa

    Several other African nations suffered internal conflicts and civil wars

    In 1910, South Africa achieved self-rule from Britain

    Most civil rights, however, were limited to white settlers

    The black majority had few rights under a legal system of racial segregation called apartheid

  • Apartheid

  • Apartheid Laws

    Prohibited marriages between white people and people and

    non-white people

    Prohibited adultery between white and non-white people Required every South African to be racially classified

    Forced separation between races through the creation of

    residential areas designated for certain races Prevented black Africans from performing skilled work in any

    areas except those designated for black occupation

  • Apartheid Laws

    Led to the removal of Coloureds from the common voters' roll

    Gave the Minister of Native Affairs the ability to displace blacks from public and privately owned land and to place them in resettlement camps

    Created black homelands

    Forced black people to carry identification (which included a photograph, place of origin, employment record, tax payments,

    and encounters with the police) at all times

  • Apartheid Laws

    Prohibited black people to go on strike

    Prevented black students from attending white Universities

    Removed black South African citizenship and required all black people to become a citizen of the homeland designated for

    his/her ethnic group

  • Houses in Soweto, a Black Township

  • “Blacks, Coloureds & Asians”

  • Apartheid in South Africa

    Under apartheid, nonwhites faced many restrictions

    For example, laws banned marriages between races and stipulated segregated restaurants, beaches, and schools

  • ANC

    The African National Congress (ANC) opposed apartheid and led the struggledfor majority rule

    In 1960 police gunned down 69 people during a protest in Sharpeville, a black township

    The government then outlawed the ANC Nelson Mandela, an ANC leader, was sentenced to

    life imprisonment

  • Nelson Mandela

  • The anniversary of the Sharpeville Massacre of March 21, 1960 has been designated as a day against racial discrimination and for human rights. The apartheid police on this day slaughtered 69 Africans and wounded many others. The liberation movements were banned in South Africa in the immediate aftermath of the carnage


  • End to Apartheid

    In the 1980s, international demands for an end to apartheid and for Mandela’s release increased

    In 1984, Bishop Desmond Tutu won the Nobel Peace Prize for his nonviolent opposition to apartheid

    In 1990, South African president F.W. de Klerk ended apartheid and freed Mandela, who was elected president in 1994

  • Bishop Desmond Tutu

  • F.W. de Klerk

  • Portugal in Africa

    South Africa’s neighbors also experienced long conflicts to attain independence

    Portugal granted independence to Angola and Mozambique in 1975

    South Africa and the United States saw the new nations as threats because some liberation leaders had ties to the ANC or the Soviet Union

  • Angola and Mozambique

  • Rwanda

    After independence, ethnic conflicts plagued many nations

    Historic resentments divided nations, and regional rivalries fed ethnic violence

    In Rwanda, one of Africa’s deadliest wars occurred

    There, the Hutus were the majority but the minority Tutsis dominated Rwanda

    In 1994, extremist Hutus slaughtered about 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus

  • Rwanda

  • Rwanda Genocide Victims

  • Rwanda (continued)

    Another 3 million Rwandans lost their homes

    In response, world leaders pledged to stop genocide wherever it may occur

    Their power to do this, however, was limited

  • Darfur

    In Sudan, non-Muslim, non-Arab rebels in the south battled Arab Muslims from the north

    This war, drought, and famine caused millions of deaths

    Finally, southern rebels signed a peace agreement in 2004

    In 2004, however, ethnic conflict spread to Darfur in western Sudan

    This conflict raises fears of a new genocide

  • Powerpoint Questions (13 points)

    1. What term is given to the legal system of racial segregation?

    2. What were black people force to carry at all times?

    3. What public areas were segregated? (3 points)

    4. What were blacks prevented from attending?

    5. What happened in Sharpeville on March 21, 1960?

    6. Who was the imprisoned leader of the African National Congress


  • Powerpoint Questions (13 points)

    7. Who was Desmond Tutu?

    8. Who was F.W. de Klerk? What did he accomplish?

    9. What two ethnic groups fought each other in Rwanda?

    10. What is the term for the ethnic cleansing of a population?

    11. What happened in 1994 in Rwanda?

  • The End