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SOLID WASTE. INTRODUCTION. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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SOLID WASTE

SOLID WASTE INTRODUCTION During the course of history, human activities for survival like consumption and production often linked to solid waste. Solid wastes are the material that arises from various human and economic activities, which tend to increase with sophisticated living standard and changing consumption pattern. It has been produce since the beginning of civilization. Any useless, unwanted, or discarded material that is not liquid or gas can be call solid waste example of mixture of substances including fine dust, cinder, metal, glass, paper and cardboard, textiles, and plastic characterize as solid waste

The characteristics are that the waste remains highly visible in the environment. Accumulation of large quantities of solid wastes is having an adverse impact on the environment. Different sources of wastes are mentioned as follows: Industrial Waste,Municipal Solid Wastes,Agricultural Waste,Mining Waste,Energy Production Waste,Dredging Waste.

Fundamental balance Model made by Field M and Field B

Ever increasing population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization are contributing to the generation of solid waste in huge quantities. With the progress of civilization, the waste generated become of a complex in nature. To illustrate how material becomes a waste a fundamental balance model made by Field M and Field B shown.In the material balance model shown , consumers has a residual and producers on the other hand produces residual to as waste in production. Only a portion of residual is being recycled. In this model, it only foretells that a percentage of the residual is being recycled and the rest of it is discharge or waste. In the material balance model, we can say that a portion of discharge may contain solid waste. This model let us show that too much consumption and production leads to too much waste.

Solid waste as man made problem have been scrutinize for us to understand better what is its effect and impacts in our lives. As humans, it is a challenge for us to solve this problem and this paper envisions tackling what we can do in our own made problem, which is solid waste.CAUSES OF SOLID WASTE

The common thread through these environmental crises is unsustainable consumption. From production, consumption and disposal of goods, humans today-individually and collectively-are asking more of the planet than ever before. On the contrary, humans could live quite well within the Earth's limits. However, we should cultivate a greater understanding as consumers through knowing causes of solid waste. Population GrowthThe number of humans on the planet rose dramatically during the 20th century. Human consumers are a major cause of waste. The most populous countries in the world, such as India, China and the United States, produce the most waste, according to the United Nations. As populations in those countries increase, so does the solid waste disposal and its negative impact on the environment. Large populations of consumers buy more goods and therefore dispose of more waste.

Urban Sprawl

Population increase also puts pressure on existing housing, raising prices and forcing some people out of the city because they cannot afford to live there. Some people respond to rising prices by moving to the outer fringes of the city, promoting urban sprawl. Generally, these fringe areas poorly served by public transport and other community facilities, so urban sprawl involves additional motor vehicle travel to work and to community facilities. It can also mean that prime agricultural land turned over to residential developments.

Consumption and Production

Seeing the exponential way of growth in population, a massive consumption and production caused solid waste as problem. Goods that are being produce by producer and consume by the consumers will become a residual after being sell or use. DISPOSING Disposing of materials that is not in need or cannot be use causes solid waste in relation with population. Domestic solid waste generated by households accounts for one-third to one-half of all solid waste generated in large cities. This amount depends on the numbers of people and the amount of rubbish they each generate. The population issues committee estimates that almost half of the growth in solid waste is due to population growth, and just over half is due to increased resource use per person. The relationship between numbers of people and the garbage generated is significant.

Another reason for solid waste along with its practices by people is cause of lack of effective enforcement. Without enforcement of politicians through ordinances and policies, no fear exists of caught. Those constituents, who might dump wastes for any of the reasons given above, are encouraged through a lack of dissuasion to do otherwise. Lack of Enforcement TRADEGY OF THE COMMONS

Some of the most profound consequences of our consumer culture upon the well-being of people worldwide still loom on the horizon. Our lifestyle choices indirectly affect the livelihoods of people who step lightly upon the earth. Tragedy of the commons is one of the causes of solid waste due to incorrect mind set of humans seeing someone doing an irrational activity (improper disposal) may lead to an influence of another do such wrong doing. HUMAN ACTIVITIES

As part of progress or as human activities will not be absent in day-to-day. Some of these activities cause solid waste like farming, mining, industrial and medical waste. MECHANISM In early pre-industrial times, waste was mainly composed of ash from fires, wood, bones, bodies and vegetable waste. It was disposed of in the ground where it would act as compost and help to improve the soil. Ancient rubbish dumps excavated in archaeological digs reveal only tiny amounts of ash, broken tools and pottery. Everything that could be was repaired and reused. Populations were smaller.

During the Medieval period people did not understand garbage was a threat until urban populations boomed. As cities began to develop, people burned their personal trash, buried it, or let it pile up. As waste piled up in urban settings, the resulting filth caused stench, harbored rats and other pests, led to contaminated water supplies and perpetuated human disease. Some of the earliest organized waste management techniques developed during this period as a way to stop and prevent further disease.

The Industrial Revolution began in the 18th century in Europe and the Americas. The availability of raw materials, increased trade and growing populations stimulated new inventions and the development of machinery. Growing populations and increased production led to greater amounts of waste. Government officials and the public increasingly became concerned about waste.

Over years we can see that unawareness, lack of education and lack of policy makes the problem of solid waste come into life. In some countries especially those poor ones, the problem of solid waste sprouted when improper management of solid wastes and the lack of seriousness in the enforcement of solid waste disposal code. It is a big challenge for as human beings to protect our planet from destruction such as solid waste that has impact to environment. Solid waste that made by human and only us, human beings can solve such problem. Effects of Solid Waste Human activities lead to catastrophe such as solid waste. These manmade problem leads to serious problems. It therefore becomes important for this study to examine the effects of solid waste. This research intended to provide insights to citizens for realization why solid waste is a crisis.

DISEASE Certain chemicals if released untreated, e.g. cyanides, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls are highly toxic and exposure can lead to disease or death. Some studies have detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed to hazardous waste. Many studies carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste.This may lead to epidemic outbreaks. Many diseases like cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis, virus attacks mostly children, plague, jaundice, or gastro-intestinal diseases may spread and cause loss of human lives. In addition, improper handling of the solid wastes gives health hazard for the workers who come in direct contact with the waste.DEGREDATION Solid waste pollutes surrounding and may lead to degradation of natural resources. This degradation makes place .Discourage tourism and other business. The unpleasant odor and unattractive appearance of piles of uncollected solid waste along streets and in fields, forests and other natural areas can discourage tourism and the establishment and or maintenance of businesses.

INCREASE IN PESTS

The inappropriate storage and disposal of organic waste attracts rodents and insects, which may increase the frequency of gastro-intestinal and parasitic diseases. One of the most frequent environmental health complaints in some area was relate to mice, rats and bedbug infestations.The garbage becomes breeding grounds for disease-carrying vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, rats and cockroaches. Reports say that about 8,00,000 flies is produced in one cubic meter of garbage, which carry pathogenic organisms, causing dysentery, diarrhea, etc. rats, carriers of insects and bio-organisms, cause plague.

POLLUTIONWater pollution resulting from flows of solid waste and urban run-off also related to population levels (although it is also a function of treatment and urban design). River system is already under severe stress because of urban development. Nutrient, bacteria and virus levels are high because of inflows in solid waste and agricultural run-off.

FLOOD

Illegal dumping has major impacts across the city especially o

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