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  • Solid Waste & Impact

  • DEFINITION OF SOLID WASTE Solid waste refers to all waste materials except hazardous waste, liquid waste, and atmospheric emissions.

  • SOLID WASTES AND HARZADOUS WASTESolid WasteCommunity WasteAgricultural WasteIndustrial WasteGeneral WasteHousehold Hazardous WasteNon-Hazardous WasteHazardous WasteRefuseGarbageSame as general waste Paper elastic bottle glass textile metal Lether rubber etc. Vegetable Fruit Food etc. Battery/Flash light Fluorescent Paint Chemical Containers Toxic Waste Radioactive Waste Chemical Waste Explosive Waste Corrosive Waste


  • SOLID WASTETransportationSources Household Commercial Institutional MarketDisposal Sanitary land fill Incineration Decomposing

  • PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE AND MANAGEMENT Problem of source and collectionProblem of TransportationProblem of disposal

  • PROBLEM OF SOURCE AND COLLECTION SourcePoor disposal at sourceNot separate of solid waste and hazardous wasteRemaining solid waste

    CollectionCollection service not cover all responsible areaLack of containersImproper containersTime consuming (due to solid waste collector spend time for separation)

  • ON-SITE STORAGEPrimary containers

    Communal containers

  • PRIMARY CONTAINERSBags, bins, buckets, etc. Used to collect and store the solid waste on household level In tropical urban environment, advised to storage not more than 24 hrs due to the serious risk of nuisance from odors and fly breeding

  • PROBLEM OF TRANSPORTATION Falling of solid waste during transportationInsufficient of transporting vehicleUnsuitable collecting routing/time

  • PROBLEM OF DISPOSAL Unsuitable location/improper designDisposal siteNo solid waste separationIncorrect solid waste separation (eg. scavenger)Not operated as designed (eg. Open dump and burn instead of sanitary landfill)Lack of equipment and manpowerInadequate of disposal area Difficult to find disposal site areas

  • POOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENTTechnical constraintBudget constraintCollection fee is very lowSocial constraint (NIMBY SYNDROME)

  • THE PROBLEM OF COMMUNITY WASTE MANAGEMENTHealth EffectCollectors do not ware safety suitCollectors have high risk of infectionCommunicationLack of understanding in solid waste managementIgnore to do it rightLack of participationLack of information

  • Public Health Aspects of Municipal Solid Waste ManagementWaste categories

    Potential health impacts in the waste cycle

  • Waste categories with potential public health impactsDomestic wasteGeneral household wastes with used batteries and drugs containers, street sweepings with small quantities of excretaSpecial and hazardous wastesHealth care waste (sharp and infectious components), toxic chemical, pharmaceutical and other industrial wastes, as well as radioactive wastesOther bulky wastesUntreated abattior wastes, construction wastes with asbestos components and sludge for treatment plants

  • Potential health impacts in the waste cycleWaste recovery, recycling and reuseCollection and transferGeneration and storage

    Treatment and disposal

  • Groups at risk from adverse public health impact of MSWMThe population of unserved areas, especially pre-school childrenWaste operators and waste pickersWorkers in facilities that produce infectious, toxic, and cancer-causing materialPeople living close to waste disposal facilitiesThe population supplied with water polluted by waste dumping or by inadequately protected landfill sites

  • Public health impacts if waste pickingMinor occupational impacts from dust and sharpsSignificant occupational impacts from toxic chemicals, in recycling waste with high heavy metal contentSignificant in case of recycling of poorly disinfected infectious waste

  • Occupational hazards associates with waste handlingAccidentsInfectionsChronic Diseases

  • Accidents:Muscular-skeletal disorders resulting from the handling of heavy containersWounds, most often infected wounds, resulting from contact with sharp wasteIntoxication and injuries resulting from contact with small amounts of hazardous chemical wastes collected with garbageTrauma, burns, and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste disposal sites, or from methane gas explosion on landfill sites

  • Infections:Dermal and blood infection resulting from direct contact with waste and from infected woundsOphthalmologic and respiratory infections resulting from exposure to infected dust, especially during land filling operationZoonosis resulting from bites by wild or stray animals feeding on wastesEnteric infections transmitted by insects feeding on wastes

  • Chronic diseases:Incineration operators are especially exposed to chronic respiratory diseases resulting from exposure to dust; to toxic and carcinogenic impacts resulting from exposure to hazardous compounds; to cardiovascular disorders and heat stress resulting from expose to excessive temperature; and to loss of hearing function due to exposure to excessive noise.

  • Environmental pathways of health hazards from waste disposal facilitiesCompostingLandfillsIncinerators

  • CompostingMinor occupational impacts from dust, sharp objects and small amounts of infectious wastes

  • IncineratorsDirect impacts: occupational accidents and chronic diseases, air pollution by particulates, heavy metals, and toxic chemicalsIndirect impacts: soil pollution by fly ash falling down, chemical water pollution from acid wastewater, and leachates from ash disposal in landfills

  • LandfillsDirect impacts: accidents, fires, explosions, dust, smoke, noise, odors, insects, rodents, stray animalsIndirect impacts: Surface water pollution by runoff from the landfill, and underground water pollution by leachates

  • Summary of waste-linked diseases and conditions with their causes or pathway of transmissionInjuries and chronic diseasesTropical diseases transmitted by water borne vectors in urban areasBacterial, virus, or parasitic infections

  • Injuries and chronic diseasesCuts and infective wounds from sharp wasteBurns from fires generated in wastesTrauma from collapses of huge waste pilesBurns or wounds from hazardous chemicals in wasteToxication and cancers from exposure to hazardous wasteChronic respiratory diseases from exposure to dust

  • Bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections:Bacterial or viral, blood infections resulting from injuries caused by infected sharp wasteEye and skin infections from waste generated infect dustRespiratory infections from exposure to waste-generated infected dustVector borne diseases, viral or parasitic, transmitted by vectors living or breeding in waste-generated ponds; and worm infestation transmitted by contact with polluted soil

  • Bacterial viral or parasitic enteric diseases, transmitted either:By insects and rodents feeding on wastesBy accidental ingestion of waste foodThrough drinking water contaminated by leachate from wasteTrough eating food contaminated by leachate from wasteZoonosis carried by stray animals and rodents feeding on waste (rabies, plangue, leishmaniasis, hydiatasis, tick-borne fevers)Bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections:

  • Tropical diseases transmitted by water-borne vectors in urban areas:Malaria transmitted by anopheles mosquitoesDengue and yellow fever transmitted by aedes mosquitoesFilariasis (Bancroftian) transmitted by culex mosquitoesSchistosomiasis has bored by bulinus and other snails


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