URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT - Metropolis ?· URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT…

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<ul><li><p>UR</p><p>BA</p><p>N S</p><p>OL</p><p>ID W</p><p>AST</p><p>E M</p><p>AN</p><p>AG</p><p>EM</p><p>EN</p><p>T</p><p>URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTMunicipal Waste and its Management</p></li><li><p>URBAN SOLID WASTEMANAGEMENT</p><p>Municipal Waste and its Management</p></li><li><p>Coordination:</p><p>Josep Maria Casas Sabata,</p><p>Polytechnic University of Barcelona (Spain)</p><p>Authors:</p><p>Josep Maria Casas Sabata, Polytechnic University of Barcelona (Spain)</p><p>Albert Torras, Barcelona Metropolitan Area Environment Department (Spain)</p><p>Enric Garriga Elies, Metropolitan Environment Organization, Barcelona (Spain)</p><p>Meritxell Martell, Polytechnic University of Barcelona (Spain)</p><p>Collaborators:</p><p>Teresa Snchez, Quito City Council (Ecuador)</p><p>Graciela Gerola, CEAMSE, Buenos Aires (Argentina)</p><p>Joaqun Ayora, Secretariat of Ecology (Mexico)</p><p>Eduardo Gonzlez, Jalisco State (Mexico)</p><p>Luciano Hernndez, Directorate of Provincial Communal Services, Havana (Cuba)</p><p>Gonzalo Vargas, La Paz (Bolivia)</p><p>Barbarito Hernndez, Directorate of Provincial Communal Services, Havana (Cuba)</p><p>Jean Franois Apoko, Brazzaville (Democratic Republic of the Congo)</p><p>Participating Cities:</p><p>Barcelona (Spain)</p><p>Buenos Aires (Argentina)</p><p>Quito and Cuenca (Ecuador)</p><p>Mexico City and Jalisco (Mexico)</p><p>Montreal (Canada)</p><p>Havana (Cuba)</p><p>Alexandria (Egypt)</p><p>La Paz (Bolivia)</p><p>With sponsorship of METROPOLIS:World Association of the Major Metropolises</p><p> 2005,World Association of the Major Metropolises. MetropolisBarcelona City CouncilAviny 15 08002 Barcelona (Spain)metropolis@mail.bcn.eswww.metropolis.org</p><p>Edicin, March 2005</p><p>Graphic Design: Diario Grossi</p><p>Printing: Treballs Grfics, SAPrinting on paper recycled</p></li><li><p>PRESENTATION</p><p>3</p><p>The worlds big cities confront the difficult challenge of the environ-mental management of their urban centers every day. Daily public, commer-cial and industrial life involves the challenge of properly managing municipalwaste to try to promote the reduction of waste production and make betteruse of recoverable fractions.</p><p>Metropolis Commission 3 has tried throughout its working life to pro-mote the sustainable management of resources and to provide member citieswith the expertise and instruments that the cities have been developing.Thetechnical assistance programs, seminars and exchanges have favored thisexchange.</p><p>We have now gathered all the technical issues and concrete experiencesinto this Waste Management Manual, so it may be used by local politiciansand technicians as a good practices guide. The aim was to design a trainingmanual that could contribute to environmental protection, waste manage-ment and the quality of life of our citizens.</p><p>Jose CuervoPresident, Commission 3 Metropolis</p><p>President of the Metropolitan Environment Organization for the Barcelona Metropolitan Area</p></li><li><p>Cities and people face the important duty of promoting sustainabilityin the broad sense of the word. The protection of the environment andresources and the wellbeing of our citizens are all part of this strategy.</p><p>Solidarity and international and inter-generational cooperation are valuesthat cities and associations like Metropolis should promote.</p><p>Commission 3 has dedicated a great deal of human and economicresources to promoting the exchange of knowledge, technology, experienceand training.</p><p>Training technicians and politicians with regard to waste managementhas been a cornerstone of the Commissions work. With the participationand coordination of the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, we have pre-pared the Municipal Waste Management Manual to be an ongoing instru-ment that can be used by cities and their waste technicians.</p><p>The Manual not only attempts to explain the technical values of theefficient management of municipal waste, but also defend the values of envi-ronmental education and public participation in this process, along withrespect for clean technologies adapted to the realities and requirements of thedifferent countries, in accordance with their own cultures and languages.</p><p>Enric Garriga EliesTechnical Coordinator, Commission 3</p><p>4</p><p>PRESENTATION</p></li><li><p>INTRODUCTION</p><p>5</p><p>This Municipal Waste Management Manual is the result of the concernand activity of many people who work in the sector. Starting with theMetropolis Commission 3 training courses devoted to municipal waste manage-ment, we gathered together the material of most interest to the differentgroups at which it is aimed.The Manual is divided into five basic chapters:The Problem of Municipal Waste and How to Manage It;Waste Recycling,Composting and Methanization;Waste Incineration and Controlled Dumping;Legislation and Human and Financial Resources and Environmental Education,Communication and Public Participation.</p><p>With this material we aim to provide a support that will be useful to thecountries and cities that have yet to begin or that need to improve manage-ment in the vast field of waste. Using original situations that differed in terms ofeach country as the starting point, our aim was to work toward improved levelsof organization and management of municipal solid waste in a comprehensiveand sustainable manner. As a good practices guide, the Manual providesinformation on technologies, processes and methodologies successfullyapplied in other countries and which directly impact resource use, wasteassessment and the preservation of the environment.</p><p>Because the Manual was mainly prepared in Barcelona, it devotes mostattention to the waste-management program in place in Catalonia.The legis-lation and regulations set out herein also refer to those currently in force inCatalonia and should thus be complemented with those in force in eachcountry.</p><p>With the aim of providing plural visions and realities of other contexts,the Manual introduces practices in municipal solid waste management in anumber of Metropolis member cities, such as the states of Mexico and Jaliscoand the cities of Barcelona, Buenos Aires, Quito, Cuenca, Montreal, Calcutta,Alexandria and Havana.</p><p>Josep Maria Casas SabataCoordinator</p><p>Polytechnic University of CataloniaBarcelona, Spain</p></li><li><p>1. The Problem of Municipal Waste and How to Manage It. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.1. Introduction and Definition of Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.2. Basic Regulations and Classifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3. Total Waste Generation and Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.4. Municipal Household Waste or Urban Solid Waste (USW). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14</p><p>1.4.1. Average Waste Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151.4.2. Waste Bag Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.4.3. Comprehensive Municipal Waste Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17</p><p>1.5. Waste Collection Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.5.1. Containers in the Street, Close to Households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.5.2. Contribution Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.5.3. Door-to-Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.5.4. Pneumatic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22</p><p>1.6. Contribution Centers: Drop-off Centers or Green Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241.7. Waste Transfer Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251.8. Waste from Markets, Large Stores and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261.9. The Treatment of Household Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261.10. Industrial Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28</p><p>1.10.1. Diagram of the Industrial Waste Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291.10.2. Objectives of an Industrial Waste Management Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291.10.3. The European Waste Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311.10.4. Generation of Hazardous Waste in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321.10.5. The Center for Enterprises and the Environment (CEMA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321.10.6. The Sub-Products Waste Stock Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33</p><p>1.11. Primary Sector Waste: Agricultural, Forestry and Livestock Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351.11.1. Composting and Biogas from Livestock Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371.11.2. Slurry Biogas Plant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38</p><p>1.12. Waste from the Mining and Construction Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.12.1. Mining and Quarry Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.12.2. Construction Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39</p><p>1.13. Sanitary Waste and Its Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411.13.1. Classification and Management of Sanitary Waste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421.13.2. Sanitary Waste Sterilization Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42</p><p>1.14. Small Quantity Special Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431.15. Radioactive or Nuclear Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451.16. Monitoring, Characterizing and Analyzing Waste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46</p><p>1.16.1. Waste Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461.16.2. Waste Analysis Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491.16.3. Waste Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491.16.4. Leachate Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511.16.5. Ecotoxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521.16.6. Limits on Waste and Leachates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531.16.7. Experiences of the Barcelona Metropolitan Program on Municipal Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541.16.8. Experiences in Calcutta (India). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....</p></li></ul>

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