Skeletal System. Functions of the skeletal system Framework Support/protect internal organs Body movement Provides leverage for lifting and movement through.
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<ul><li><p> Skeletal System</p></li><li><p>Functions of the skeletal systemFrameworkSupport/protect internal organsBody movementProvides leverage for lifting and movement through the attachment of muscles Produced blood cellsRed blood cells and some white blood cellsStores the majority of the bodys calcium supply</p></li><li><p>Accessory StructuresCartilage:On end surfaces to prevent frictionLigamentsAttaches bone to boneTendonsAttaches muscle to bone</p></li><li><p>Axial skeletonConsists ofSkullSpinal columnRibssternum</p></li><li><p>Appendicular skeletonUpper extremitiesShoulder girdleLower extremitiesPelvic girdle</p></li><li><p>Four groups of boneLongLength is greater than the widthFemurShortBlocky bones Similar length/widthWrist (carpal) and ankle (tarsal ) bones </p></li><li><p>Four groups of boneFlatComposed of two layers with spongy bone between themscapula and skullIrregularBones of complex shape and structureFacial and vertebrae bones</p></li><li><p>Bones of the SkullCranium: encloses the brain (skull)FrontalforeheadParietalRoof and upper sides of craniumOccipitalPosterior floor and walls of craniumTemporalSides and base of cranium </p></li><li><p> Bones of the SkullMandibleLower jaw boneOnly moveable bone MaxillaUpper jaw bone</p></li><li><p>ThoraxRib cageRibsSternumThoracic vertebraTrue ribsAttached to sternumFalse ribsAttached to ribs aboveFloating ribsAttached to vertebrae only</p></li><li><p>Spinal ColumnVertebral column26 vertebraeTypes of vertebraeCervicalneck ThoracicChest LumbarLower backLargest and strongest</p></li><li><p>Spinal ColumnSacrumTriangular shapedBase of spineCoccyxTail boneEnd of spine</p></li><li><p>Structures of theLong Bone</p></li><li><p>Bone TissueCompact boneHard dense part of bone</p><p>CancellousLoosely packed or spongy</p></li><li><p> Structures of bones Long BoneDiaphysisLong shaft of boneEpiphysisEnds of long boneMedullary canalCavity w/in diaphysisContains either yellow or red marrow</p></li><li><p>Structures of bonesTissues of a bone PeriosteumOuter covering of boneLayer promote bone growth (ossification) nutrition, and repairEndosteumLines medullary canal </p></li><li><p>Structures of bonesBone marrowRed bone marrowManufactures RBCs & WBCsRibs, sternum, vertebrae, scapula, ends of long bonesYellow bone marrowFunctions as fat storage</p></li><li><p>Blood cellsErythrocytesCarry O2 and CO2LeukocytesFight infectionThrombocytesclotting</p></li><li><p>JointsArticulation and Movement</p></li><li><p>Joints Two or more bones join togetherThree types of joints:Immovable (synarthrosis) CraniumSlightly movable (amphiarthrosis) Pelvis Freely movable (diarthrosis) </p></li><li><p>Freely Moveable JointsFreely movable (Synovial) joints of the bodyPivot jointAllow rotation on single axisBase of skullBall and socketwide range of movement in many directionsHips and shouldersHinge jointsAllows movement in one direction or plane (bend and straighten)Knees and elbows</p></li><li><p>Freely Moveable JointsSaddle jointConvex and concave surface fit togetherthumbGliding jointTwo surfaces meet with motion limited by tissues and ligamentsWrist and ankle</p></li><li><p>Synovial fluidLubrication for jointssmooth movement of joints Acts as shock absorberMeniscusFluid-filled disc Reduces frictionBursaSac lined with synovial membraneReduces friction</p></li><li><p>Disorders of theSkeletal System</p></li><li><p>Disorders of the Skeletal SystemOsteomyelitisSevere inflammation of bone and bone marrow, resulting form bacterial infectionOsteoporosisBones that have calcium and phosphorous deficienciesBones are very porous and fracture easilyOccurs in women as they age due to estrogen and other hormonal and mineral deficiencies</p></li><li><p>Disorders of the Skeletal SystemArthritisInflammation of the jointBursitisInflammation of the bursa</p></li><li><p>Disorders of the Skeletal SystemGoutAccumulation of uric acid crystals in a jointDislocationSeparation of a joint and the malposition of an extremitySprainInjury to the soft tissues of a joint, characterized by the inability to move, deformity, and pain</p></li><li><p>Fractures</p></li><li><p>FracturesGreenstick fractureIncomplete break that occurs almost exclusively in childrenIncomplete fractureFracture lines does not extend through bone or disrupt the entire thickness of boneComplete fractureFracture lines goes all the way through bone</p></li><li><p>FracturesComminuted fracturesBone broken in several places and splinters of bone can be embedded in surrounding tissue </p></li><li><p>FracturesCompression fractureBone collapses due to disruption of bone tissueUsually in vertebrae </p></li><li><p>FracturesCompound:Causes disruption of skin and soft tissueFragment of bone punctures skinOften complicated by infection</p></li><li><p>Fracture treatment-ReductionManipulation to restore correct anatomical position </p></li><li><p>Fracture treatment-ReductionOpen reduction surgical incision to expose fracture siteBone realigned and position with internal fixation (rods, plates, screws)Closed reductionLocal or general anesthesia may be usedManipulate bone back into normal position</p></li><li><p>Fracture treatment-ImmobilizationImmobilization with a cast or splintAlleviates muscle spasm around fracture site</p></li><li><p>Fracture Treatment-Traction Pin inserted through distal bone fragment and pulling forces helps return overriding fragments to normal anatomical positionUsed until healing takes place orUntil internal fixation can be performed</p></li><li><p>The End</p></li></ul>
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