The Skeletal System The Skeletal System. Functions of Bones Support of the body Protection of soft organs Movement due to attached skeletal muscles.
Post on 14-Dec-2015
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The Skeletal System The Skeletal System Slide 2 Functions of Bones Support of the body Protection of soft organs Movement due to attached skeletal muscles Storage of minerals and fats Blood cell formation Slide 3 The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments Divided into two divisions Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Slide 4 Bones of the Human Body The adult skeleton has 206 bones Two basic types of bone tissue Compact bone Spongy bone Figure 5.2b Slide 5 Classifications of Bones Figure 5.1 Page 144 Slide 6 Classification of Bones Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus Slide 7 Long Bone Anatomy Diaphysis Shaft Composed mostly of compact bone Epiphysis Ends of the bone Composed mostly of spongy bone Figure 5.2a Page 145 Slide 8 Long Bone Anatomy Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis Fibrous connective tissue membrane Endosteum Lines the inner marrow cavity Red marrow Yellow marrow Figure 5.2c Slide 9 Classification of Bones Short bones Generally cube-shaped Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsals Slide 10 Classification of Bones Flat bones Thin and flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum Slide 11 Classification of Bones Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip Slide 12 Skeletal Divisions Axial Skeleton Bones of the skull and cranium Bones of the Vertebral Column Bones of the ribs and sturnum Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the appendages and pectoral and pelvic girdles Slide 13 The Axial Skeleton Forms the longitudinal part of the body Skull: 8 cranial bones, 14 facial Vertebral column Thorax Slide 14 The Cranium Frontal Bone Forms the forehead and superior surface of each eye socket (orbital) Frontal sinuses are air filled pockets that produce mucus that cleans and moistens the nasal cavities Slide 15 The Cranium Parietal Bones Posterior to the frontal bones, located on each side Forms the roof and superior walls of the cranium Slide 16 The Cranium Occipital Bone Posterior and inferior portions of the cranium Surrounds the foramen magnum (opening that connects the cranial cavity with the spinal cavity) Slide 17 The Cranium Temporal Bones Lie below the parietal bones and contribute to the sides and base of the cranium Slide 18 The Cranium Sphenoid Bone Forms part of the floor of the cranium Unites the cranial and facial bones Bat shaped Contains sphenoidal sinuses Slide 19 The Cranium Ethmoid Bone Consists of two honeycombed masses of bone Forms part of the cranial floor Two projections Superior conchae Middle conchae Slide 20 The Skull Figure 6-14 Zygomatic Bones Found on both sides of the face Bone curves laterally to form the cheek bone Forms lateral walls of the orbits Slide 21 The Skull Mandible Bone of the lower jaw Articulates with the temporal bone at the mandibular fossa Mobile Slide 22 The Skull Figure 6-14 Maxillary Bone Articulates will all bones of the face, except the mandible Forms: The floor and medial portions of the rims of the orbits The walls of the nasal cavity The anterior roof of the mouth Slide 23 The Skull Figure 6-14 Nasal Articulate with the frontal bone and maxillary bone Form a bridge midway between the orbits Slide 24 The Skull Figure 6-14 Lacrimal Bones Located within the orbits, on the medial surfaces Articulate with the frontal, ethmoid, and maxillary bones Provide a passageway for the lacrimal (tear) ducts Slide 25 The Skull Figure 6-14 Palatine Bone Paired bones of the bony (hard) palate Roof of the mouth Contribute to the floor of the nasal cavity Slide 26 The Skull Figure 6-14 Foramen Magnum Connects the cranial cavity with the spinal cavity The spinal cord passes through this opening and connects to the inferior portion of the brain Slide 27 Review Figure 5.7 Slide 28 Review Figure 5.11 Slide 29 Review Figure 5.9