The Skeletal System - staff-old.najah.edu System...• Parts of the skeletal system: 1. Bones (skeleton) 2. ... • Movement due to attached skeletal muscles • Storage of minerals and fats • Blood cell formation

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  • The Skeletal System

    1

    Dr. Naim Kittana

    Dr. Suhaib Hattab

    Faculty of Medicine & Health SciencesAn-Najah National University

  • Declaration

    The content and the figures of this seminar were directly adopted from the text book Human Anatomy and Physiology / Ninth edition/ Eliane N. Marieb2013

    2Dr. Naim Kittana, Dr. Suhaib Hattab

  • The Skeletal System

    Parts of the skeletal system:

    1. Bones (skeleton)

    2. Joints

    3. Cartilages

    4. Ligaments

    Divided into two divisions

    1. Axial skeleton

    2. Appendicular skeleton

    3Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Functions of Bones

    Support of the body

    Protection of soft organs

    Movement due to attached skeletal muscles

    Storage of minerals and fats

    Blood cell formation

    4Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Bones of the Human Body

    The skeleton has 206 bones

    Two basic types of bone tissue

    Compact bone

    Spongy bone

    5Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Classification of Bones

    6Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Structure of Flat Bones

    7Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Structure of Long Bones

    8Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone

    Five major cell types populate bone tissue: osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, bone lining cells, and osteoclasts

    Osteogenic cells (osteoprogenitor cells), are mitotically active stem cells found in the membranous periosteum and endosteum. When stimulated, these cells differentiate into osteoblasts or bone lining cells

    Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that secrete the bone matrix.

    Osteocytes: The spidery osteocytes are mature bone cells that occupy spaces (lacunae) that conform to their shape. Osteocytesmonitor and maintain the bone matrix.

    9Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone

    Bone lining cells: are flat cells found on bone surfaces where bone remodeling is not going on. Like osteocytes, they are thought to help maintain the matrix.

    Osteoclasts: are giant multinucleate cells located at sites of bone resorption

    10Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone

    Osteon (Haversian System) The structural unit of compact bone.

    Each osteon is an elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone.

    Functionally, osteons are tiny weight-bearing pillars.

    11Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Microscopic Anatomy of Spongy Bone

    The trabeculae in spongy bone align precisely along lines of stress and help the bone resist stress.

    12

  • Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone

    13

  • Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone

    14Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Bone Markings

    15Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Bone Markings

    16Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Capsule of hip-joint, Posterior aspect.

    Upper surface of right tibia

    17Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Long Bone Formation and Growth

    18

  • The Axial Skeleton

    Forms the longitudinal part of the body

    Divided into three parts

    1. Skull

    2. Vertebral column

    3. Bony thorax

    19Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • The

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    20

  • The Skull

    Two sets of bones

    1. Cranium

    2. Facial bones

    Bones are joined by sutures

    Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

    21Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • The

    Sku

    ll: A

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    22

  • The Skull: Lateral View

    23

  • The Skull: Superior View

    24

  • The Skull: Inferior View

    25

  • Paranasal Sinuses

    Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity

    26Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • The Hyoid Bone

    The only bone that does not articulate with another bone

    Serves as a moveable base for the tongue

    27Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • The Vertebral Column

    Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs

    The spine has a normal curvature

    Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location

    28Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Structure of a Typical Vertebrae

    29Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae

    30

  • Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae

    31Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae

    32

  • The Bony Thorax

    33

  • The Appendicular Skeleton

    Limbs (appendages)

    Pectoral girdle

    Pelvic girdle

    34Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle

    35

  • The humerus of the right arm

    36

  • Bones of the Upper Limb

    37

  • Bones of the Upper Limb

    38

  • Bones of the Pelvic Girdle

    39Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Bones of the Pelvic Girdle

    40

  • Gender Differences of the Pelvis

    41

  • Gender Differences of the Pelvis

    42

  • Bones of the Lower Limbs

    The thigh has one bone: femur thigh bone

    43

  • Bones of the Lower Limbs

    The leg has two bones:

    Tibia

    Fibula

    The tibia and fibula of the right leg

    44

  • Bones of the right foot

    The foot:

    1. Tarsus ankle

    2. Metatarsals sole

    3. Phalanges toes

    45Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Bones of the right foot

    46

  • Arches of the Foot

    Together, the arches of the foot form a half dome that distributes about half of a persons standing and walking weight to the heel bones and half to the heads of the metatarsals. 47

  • Joints

    Articulations of bones

    Functions of joints:

    Hold bones together

    Allow for mobility

    Ways joints are classified:

    Functionally

    Structurally

    48Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Functional Classification of Joints:

    1. Immovable joints

    2. Slightly moveable joints

    3. Freely moveable joints

    Structural Classification of Joints:

    1. Fibrous joints: Generally immovable

    2. Cartilaginous joints: Immovable or slightly moveable

    3. Synovial joints: Freely moveable

    Classifications of Joints

    49Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Fibrous Joints

    50

  • Cartilaginous Joints

    51

  • Synovial Joints

    52

  • The General Structure of Synovial Joint

    53

  • Summary of joint classes

    54Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints

    55

  • Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints

    Gliding occurs when one flat, or nearly flat, bone surface glides or slips over another (back-and-forth and side-to-side)

    Angular movements increase or decrease the angle between two bones. These movements may occur in any plane of the body and include

    flexion

    extension

    hyperextension

    abduction

    adduction

    circumduction

    56Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints

    Flexion: bending movement, usually along the sagittal plane, that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer together

    Extension: is the reverse of flexion and occurs at the same joints

    Hyperextension: Continuing such movements beyond the anatomical position is called

    57Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints

    58

  • Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints

    Abduction (moving away): is movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body, along the frontal plane

    Adduction (moving toward): is the opposite of abduction, so it is the movement of a limb toward the body midline or, in the case of the digits, toward the midline of the hand or foot

    Circumduction: is moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space. The distal end of the limb moves in a circle, while the point of the cone (the shoulder or hip joint) is more or less stationary.

    Rotation: is the turning of a bone around its own long axis

    59Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints

    60

  • Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape

    61

  • Synovial joints

    1- Plane joints

    Permit gliding or sliding movements in the plane of the articularsurfaces.

    The opposed surfaces of the bones are flat or almost flat, with movement limited by their tight joint capsules.

    Plane joints are numerous and are nearly always small.

    An example is the acromioclavicular joint between the acromion of the scapula and the clavicle.

    62Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Synovial joints

    2- Hinge joints

    Permit flexion and extension only

    Movements occur in one plane (sagittal) around a single axis that runs transverse uniaxial joints

    The joint capsule of these joints is thin and lax anteriorly and posteriorly where movement occurs

    The bones are joined by strong, laterally placed collateral ligaments. The elbow joint is a hinge joint

    63Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Synovial joints

    3- Pivot joints

    Permit rotation around a central axis; thus they are uniaxial. In these joints, a rounded process of bone rotates within a sleeve or ring.

    The median atlantoaxial joint is a pivot joint in which the atlas (C1 vertebra) rotates around a finger-like process, the dens of the axis (C2 vertebra), during rotation of the head.

    64Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Pivot joints

    65Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape

    66

  • Synovial joints

    4- Condyloid joints

    Permit flexion and extension as well as abduction and adduction; thus condyloid joints are also biaxial

    Movement in one plane (sagittal) is usually greater (freer) than in the other. Circumduction, more restricted than that of saddle joints, is also possible

    The metacarpophalangeal joints (knuckle joints) are condyloidjoints

    67Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape

    68

  • Synovial joints

    5- Saddle joints

    Permit abduction and adduction as well as flexion and extension,.

    Movements occurring around two axes at right angles to each other; thus saddle joints are biaxial joints that allow movement in two planes, sagittal and frontal.

    The performance of these movements in a circular sequence (circumduction) is also possible.

    The opposing articular surfaces are shaped like a saddle (i.e., they are reciprocally concave and convex).

    The carpometacarpal joint at the base of the 1st digit (thumb) is a saddle joint. 69Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

  • Synovial joints

    6- Ball and socket joints

    Allow movement in multiple axes and planes:

    Flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction; thus ball and socket joints are multi-axial joints.

    In these highly mobile joints, the spheroidal surface of one bone moves within the socket of another.

    The hip joint is a ball and socket joint in which the spherical head of the femur rotates within the socket formed by the acetabulumof the hip bone.

    70Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD

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