The Skeletal System - An-Najah National University System...• Parts of the skeletal system: 1. Bones (skeleton) 2. ... • Movement due to attached skeletal muscles ... movement of a limb toward the body midline or, ...

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<ul><li><p>The Skeletal System </p><p>1 </p><p>Dr. Naim Kittana </p><p>Faculty of Medicine &amp; Health Sciences </p><p>An-Najah National University </p></li><li><p>Declaration </p><p> The content and the figures of this seminar were directly adopted from the text book Human Anatomy and Physiology / Ninth edition/ Eliane N. Marieb 2013 </p><p>2 Dr. Naim Kittana, Dr. Suhaib Hattab </p></li><li><p>The Skeletal System </p><p> Parts of the skeletal system: </p><p>1. Bones (skeleton) </p><p>2. Joints </p><p>3. Cartilages </p><p>4. Ligaments </p><p> Divided into two divisions </p><p>1. Axial skeleton </p><p>2. Appendicular skeleton </p><p>3 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Functions of Bones </p><p> Support of the body </p><p> Protection of soft organs </p><p> Movement due to attached skeletal muscles </p><p> Storage of minerals and fats </p><p> Blood cell formation </p><p>4 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Bones of the Human Body </p><p> The skeleton has 206 bones </p><p> Two basic types of bone tissue </p><p> Compact bone </p><p> Spongy bone </p><p>5 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Classification of Bones </p><p>6 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Structure of Flat Bones </p><p>7 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Structure of Long Bones </p><p>8 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone </p><p>Five major cell types populate bone tissue: osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, bone lining cells, and osteoclasts </p><p> Osteogenic cells (osteoprogenitor cells), are mitotically active stem cells found in the membranous periosteum and endosteum. When stimulated, these cells differentiate into osteoblasts or bone lining cells </p><p> Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that secrete the bone matrix. </p><p> Osteocytes: The spidery osteocytes are mature bone cells that occupy spaces (lacunae) that conform to their shape. Osteocytes monitor and maintain the bone matrix. </p><p>9 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone </p><p> Bone lining cells: are flat cells found on bone surfaces where bone remodeling is not going on. Like osteocytes, they are thought to help maintain the matrix. </p><p> Osteoclasts: are giant multinucleate cells located at sites of bone resorption </p><p>10 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone </p><p>11 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone </p><p> Osteon (Haversian System) The structural unit of compact bone. </p><p> Each osteon is an elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone. </p><p> Functionally, osteons are tiny weight-bearing pillars. </p><p>12 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of Spongy Bone </p><p> The trabeculae in spongy bone align precisely along lines of stress and help the bone resist stress. </p><p>13 </p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone </p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone </p><p>15 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Bone Markings </p><p>16 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Bone Markings </p><p>17 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Capsule of hip-joint, Posterior aspect. </p><p>Upper surface of right tibia </p><p>18 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Long Bone Formation and Growth </p><p>19 </p></li><li><p>The Axial Skeleton </p><p> Forms the longitudinal part of the body </p><p> Divided into three parts </p><p>1. Skull </p><p>2. Vertebral column </p><p>3. Bony thorax </p><p>20 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>The</p><p> hu</p><p>man</p><p> ske</p><p>leto</p><p>n </p><p>21 </p></li><li><p>The Skull </p><p> Two sets of bones </p><p>1. Cranium </p><p>2. Facial bones </p><p> Bones are joined by sutures </p><p> Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint </p><p>22 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>The</p><p> Sku</p><p>ll: A</p><p>nte</p><p>rio</p><p>r vi</p><p>ew </p><p>23 </p></li><li><p>The Skull: Lateral View </p><p>24 </p></li><li><p>The Skull: Superior View </p><p>25 </p></li><li><p>The Skull: Inferior View </p><p>26 </p></li><li><p>Paranasal Sinuses </p><p>Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity </p><p>27 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>The Hyoid Bone </p><p> The only bone that does not articulate with another bone </p><p> Serves as a moveable base for the tongue </p><p>28 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>The Vertebral Column </p><p> Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs </p><p> The spine has a normal curvature </p><p> Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location </p><p>29 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Structure of a Typical Vertebrae </p><p>30 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD 31 </p><p>rib vertebrae joint </p></li><li><p>Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae </p><p>32 </p></li><li><p>Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae </p><p>33 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae </p><p>34 </p></li><li><p>The Bony Thorax </p><p>35 </p></li><li><p>The Appendicular Skeleton </p><p> Limbs (appendages) </p><p> Pectoral girdle </p><p> Pelvic girdle </p><p>36 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle </p><p>37 </p></li><li><p>The humerus of the right arm </p><p>38 </p></li><li><p>Bones of the Upper Limb </p><p>39 </p></li><li><p>Bones of the Upper Limb </p><p>40 </p></li><li><p>Bones of the Pelvic Girdle </p><p>41 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Bones of the Pelvic Girdle </p><p>42 </p></li><li><p>Gender Differences of the Pelvis </p><p>43 </p></li><li><p>Gender Differences of the Pelvis </p><p>44 </p></li><li><p>Bones of the Lower Limbs </p><p> The thigh has one bone: femur thigh bone </p><p>45 </p></li><li><p>Bones of the Lower Limbs </p><p> The leg has two bones: </p><p> Tibia </p><p> Fibula </p><p>The tibia and fibula of the right leg </p><p>46 </p></li><li><p>Bones of the right foot </p><p>The foot: </p><p>1. Tarsus ankle </p><p>2. Metatarsals sole </p><p>3. Phalanges toes </p><p>47 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Bones of the right foot </p><p>48 </p></li><li><p>Arches of the Foot </p><p>Together, the arches of the foot form a half dome that distributes about half of a persons standing and walking weight to the heel bones and half to the heads of the metatarsals. 49 </p></li><li><p>Joints </p><p> Articulations of bones </p><p> Functions of joints: </p><p> Hold bones together </p><p> Allow for mobility </p><p> Ways joints are classified: </p><p> Functionally </p><p> Structurally </p><p>50 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Functional Classification of Joints: </p><p>1. Immovable joints </p><p>2. Slightly moveable joints </p><p>3. Freely moveable joints </p><p>Structural Classification of Joints: </p><p>1. Fibrous joints: Generally immovable </p><p>2. Cartilaginous joints: Immovable or slightly moveable </p><p>3. Synovial joints: Freely moveable </p><p>Classifications of Joints </p><p>51 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Fibrous Joints </p><p>52 </p></li><li><p>Cartilaginous Joints </p><p>53 </p></li><li><p>Synovial Joints </p><p>54 </p></li><li><p>The General Structure of Synovial Joint </p><p>55 </p></li><li><p>Summary of joint classes </p><p>56 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints </p><p> Gliding occurs when one flat, or nearly flat, bone surface glides or slips over another (back-and-forth and side-to-side) </p><p> Angular movements increase or decrease the angle between two bones. These movements may occur in any plane of the body and include </p><p> flexion </p><p> extension </p><p> hyperextension </p><p> abduction </p><p> adduction </p><p> circumduction </p><p>57 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints </p><p> Flexion: bending movement, usually along the sagittal plane, that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer together </p><p> Extension: is the reverse of flexion and occurs at the same joints </p><p> Hyperextension: Continuing such movements beyond the anatomical position is called </p><p>58 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints </p><p>59 </p></li><li><p>Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints </p><p>60 </p></li><li><p>Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints </p><p> Abduction (moving away): is movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body, along the frontal plane </p><p> Adduction (moving toward): is the opposite of abduction, so it is the movement of a limb toward the body midline or, in the case of the digits, toward the midline of the hand or foot </p><p> Circumduction: is moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space. The distal end of the limb moves in a circle, while the point of the cone (the shoulder or hip joint) is more or less stationary. </p><p> Rotation: is the turning of a bone around its own long axis </p><p>61 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Types of movements allowed by Synovial Joints </p><p>62 </p></li><li><p>Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape </p><p>63 </p></li><li><p>Synovial joints </p><p>1- Plane joints </p><p> Permit gliding or sliding movements in the plane of the articular surfaces. </p><p> The opposed surfaces of the bones are flat or almost flat, with movement limited by their tight joint capsules. </p><p> Plane joints are numerous and are nearly always small. </p><p> An example is the acromioclavicular joint between the acromion of the scapula and the clavicle. </p><p>64 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Synovial joints </p><p>2- Hinge joints </p><p> Permit flexion and extension only </p><p> Movements occur in one plane (sagittal) around a single axis that runs transverse uniaxial joints </p><p> The joint capsule of these joints is thin and lax anteriorly and posteriorly where movement occurs </p><p> The bones are joined by strong, laterally placed collateral ligaments. The elbow joint is a hinge joint </p><p>65 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Synovial joints </p><p>3- Pivot joints </p><p> Permit rotation around a central axis; thus they are uniaxial. In these joints, a rounded process of bone rotates within a sleeve or ring. </p><p> The median atlantoaxial joint is a pivot joint in which the atlas (C1 vertebra) rotates around a finger-like process, the dens of the axis (C2 vertebra), during rotation of the head. </p><p>66 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Pivot joints </p><p>67 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape </p><p>68 </p></li><li><p>Synovial joints </p><p>4- Condyloid joints </p><p> Permit flexion and extension as well as abduction and adduction; thus condyloid joints are also biaxial </p><p> Movement in one plane (sagittal) is usually greater (freer) than in the other. Circumduction, more restricted than that of saddle joints, is also possible </p><p> The metacarpophalangeal joints (knuckle joints) are condyloid joints </p><p>69 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape </p><p>70 </p></li><li><p>Synovial joints </p><p>5- Saddle joints </p><p> Permit abduction and adduction as well as flexion and extension. </p><p> Movements occurring around two axes at right angles to each other; thus saddle joints are biaxial joints that allow movement in two planes, sagittal and frontal. </p><p> The performance of these movements in a circular sequence (circumduction) is also possible. </p><p> The opposing articular surfaces are shaped like a saddle (i.e., they are reciprocally concave and convex). </p><p> The carpometacarpal joint at the base of the 1st digit (thumb) is a saddle joint. 71 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li><li><p>Synovial joints </p><p>6- Ball and socket joints </p><p> Allow movement in multiple axes and planes: </p><p> Flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction; thus ball and socket joints are multi-axial joints. </p><p> In these highly mobile joints, the spheroidal surface of one bone moves within the socket of another. </p><p> The hip joint is a ball and socket joint in which the spherical head of the femur rotates within the socket formed by the acetabulum of the hip bone. </p><p>72 Dr. Naim Kittana, PhD </p></li></ul>

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