Skeletal System - Skeleton subdivided ... Movement: skeletal muscles attached to bones ... due to poor posture, or unequal pull of muscles on spine.

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<ul><li><p> Skeletal SystemSkeletal SystemChapter 5Chapter 5</p></li><li><p>Components of the Skeletal Components of the Skeletal SystemSystem</p><p> Skeleton subdividedSkeleton subdivided Axial Skeleton-longitudinal Axial Skeleton-longitudinal </p><p>axis of bodyaxis of body Appendicular Skeleton-Appendicular Skeleton-</p><p>limbs and girdleslimbs and girdles</p><p> Skeletal System includesSkeletal System includes Joints 3 typesJoints 3 types Cartilages 3 typesCartilages 3 types</p><p> Hyaline, Fibrocartilage, Hyaline, Fibrocartilage, ElasticElastic</p><p> Ligaments bone to boneLigaments bone to bone</p><p>http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/S/skeleton.html</p></li><li><p>Functions of BonesFunctions of Bones SupportSupport: framework: framework ProtectionProtection: protect soft body organs: protect soft body organs</p><p>examples?examples? Movement: Movement: skeletal muscles attached to bones skeletal muscles attached to bones </p><p>via tendonsvia tendons StorageStorage: fats in the internal cavities of bones : fats in the internal cavities of bones </p><p>and minerals such as Caand minerals such as Ca++++ and Phosphorus. and Phosphorus. Blood cell formationBlood cell formation: hematopoiesis (blood cell : hematopoiesis (blood cell </p><p>formation) marrow cavities of some bones.formation) marrow cavities of some bones.</p></li><li><p>Classification of BonesClassification of Bones</p><p> Two types of osseous Two types of osseous tissuetissue Compact bone-dense, Compact bone-dense, </p><p>smooth, homogeneoussmooth, homogeneous Spongy bone-Spongy bone-</p><p>needlelike pieces of needlelike pieces of bone and lots of open bone and lots of open space.space.</p><p>http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/276196/101316/Longitudinal-section-of-the-humerus-showing-outer-compact-bone-and</p></li><li><p>Classification based on ShapeClassification based on Shape Four groups Four groups </p><p>1) 1) Long bonesLong bones longer than wide, longer than wide, shaft with heads at both ends, shaft with heads at both ends, mostly compact bone, all bones of mostly compact bone, all bones of limbs except patella, wrist, anklelimbs except patella, wrist, ankle</p><p>2) 2) Short bonesShort bones cube shaped, cube shaped, mostly spongy, wrist, ankle, mostly spongy, wrist, ankle, sesamoid bonessesamoid bones</p><p>3) 3) Flat bonesFlat bones thin, flattened, thin, flattened, usually curved, outer layers of usually curved, outer layers of compact bone sandwich spongy, compact bone sandwich spongy, skull, ribs, sternumskull, ribs, sternum</p><p>4) 4) Irregular bonesIrregular bones dont fit dont fit previous categories, hip bones, previous categories, hip bones, vertebrae vertebrae </p><p>http://www.aclasta.co.nz/osteoporosis/index.htm</p></li><li><p>Structure of a Long BoneStructure of a Long Bone</p><p> Diaphysis Diaphysis - shaft- shaft Periosteum Periosteum - fibrous connective - fibrous connective </p><p>tissue membranetissue membrane EndosteumEndosteum Sharpeys fibers -Sharpeys fibers - perforating fibers perforating fibers </p><p>connect periosteum to boneconnect periosteum to bone Epiphyses Epiphyses - ends, compact bone - ends, compact bone </p><p>enclosing spongyenclosing spongy Articular cartilageArticular cartilage - covers - covers </p><p>epiphyses, glassy hyaline cartilage-epiphyses, glassy hyaline cartilage-decreases frictiondecreases friction</p><p> Epiphyseal lineEpiphyseal line - adult bones, - adult bones, epiphyseal plate in growing bones, epiphyseal plate in growing bones, hyaline cartilage, growth, replaced hyaline cartilage, growth, replaced by bone in pubertyby bone in puberty http://www.curehandpain.com/images/bone/long_bone.gif </p><p>http://www.curehandpain.com/images/bone/long_bone.gif</p></li><li><p>Structure of a Long BoneStructure of a Long Bone</p><p> Medullary cavity Medullary cavity 1) adults - yellow marrow1) adults - yellow marrow</p><p>2) infants red marrow2) infants red marrow- in adults red marrow - in adults red marrow confined to spongy bone of confined to spongy bone of flat bones and epiphyses of flat bones and epiphyses of some long bonessome long bones</p><p> Bone Markings Table 5.1 Bone Markings Table 5.1 projections vs depressionsprojections vs depressionsex. Trochanter, Foramenex. Trochanter, Foramen</p><p>http://www.curehandpain.com/images/bone/long_bone.gif</p><p>http://www.curehandpain.com/images/bone/long_bone.gif</p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of Long Microscopic Anatomy of Long BoneBone</p><p> Osteocytes mature Osteocytes mature bone cellsbone cells</p><p> Lacunae cavities where Lacunae cavities where osteocytes foundosteocytes found</p><p> Lamellae circles lacunae Lamellae circles lacunae foundfound</p><p> Haversian canals center Haversian canals center of lamellaeof lamellae</p><p> Osteon lamellae + Osteon lamellae + Haversian canalHaversian canal</p><p> CanaliculiCanaliculi Volkmanns canalsVolkmanns canals</p><p>http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/GCaplan/anat/images/Image269.gif </p></li><li><p>Microscopic Anatomy of Long Microscopic Anatomy of Long BoneBone</p><p> Osteocytes mature Osteocytes mature bone cellsbone cells</p><p> Lacunae cavities where Lacunae cavities where osteocytes foundosteocytes found</p><p> Lamellae circles lacunae Lamellae circles lacunae foundfound</p><p> Haversian canals center Haversian canals center of lamellaeof lamellae</p><p> Osteon lamellae + Osteon lamellae + Haversian canalHaversian canal</p><p> CanaliculiCanaliculi Volkmanns canalsVolkmanns canals</p><p>http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/curriculum/vm8054/labs/Lab8/IMAGES/OSTEON%20AND%20INTERSTITIAL%20SYSTEM.jpg </p></li><li><p>Bone Formation, Growth, and Bone Formation, Growth, and RemodelingRemodeling</p><p> Skeleton formed from Skeleton formed from bone and cartilagebone and cartilage</p><p> Embryos vs young Embryos vs young childrenchildren</p><p> Cartilage remains in Cartilage remains in nose, parts of ribs, nose, parts of ribs, jointsjoints</p><p> OssificationOssification bone bone formationformation</p><p>http://www.personal.psu.edu/staff/m/b/mbt102/bisci4online/bone/bonedevel.jpg </p></li><li><p>OssificationOssification</p><p> Ossification 2 phasesOssification 2 phases1) Hyaline cartilage model 1) Hyaline cartilage model covered w/ bone matrix by covered w/ bone matrix by OsteoblastsOsteoblasts2) Cartilage digested 2) Cartilage digested opening Medullary cavityopening Medullary cavity</p><p>-By birth hyaline cartilage -By birth hyaline cartilage models coverted to bone models coverted to bone except articular cartilages except articular cartilages and epiphyseal platesand epiphyseal plates</p><p>http://www.personal.psu.edu/staff/m/b/mbt102/bisci4online/bone/bonedevel.jpg</p></li><li><p>Bone Growth - LengtheningBone Growth - Lengthening</p><p> New cartilage added 2 places New cartilage added 2 places external articular cartilage external articular cartilage and ephiphyseal plateand ephiphyseal plate</p><p> What do each of these do?What do each of these do? Old cartilage digested replaced Old cartilage digested replaced </p><p>by bony matrixby bony matrix</p><p>http://www.personal.psu.edu/staff/m/b/mbt102/bisci4online/bone/bonedevel.jpg</p></li><li><p>Bone Growth - WideningBone Growth - Widening</p><p> Appositional Growth Appositional Growth diameter increasediameter increase</p><p> OsteoblastsOsteoblasts in periosteum add in periosteum add bone tissues to diaphysisbone tissues to diaphysis</p><p> OsteoclastsOsteoclasts in endosteum in endosteum remove bone from inner remove bone from inner diaphysisdiaphysis</p><p> Occurs at about same rateOccurs at about same rate Controlled by hormonesControlled by hormones Ends in puberty epiphyseal Ends in puberty epiphyseal </p><p>plates converted to boneplates converted to bone</p><p>http://www.personal.psu.edu/staff/m/b/mbt102/bisci4online/bone/bonedevel.jpg</p></li><li><p>Bone RemodelingBone Remodeling 2 Factors 2 Factors </p><p>1) Ca1) Ca++++ in blood bones as storage in blood bones as storagea) below homeostatic levels a) below homeostatic levels parathyroid glands release PTH into parathyroid glands release PTH into blood.blood.</p><p> - PTH activates osteoclasts- PTH activates osteoclastsb) above homeostatic levels b) above homeostatic levels - Ca- Ca++++ deposited as calcium salts deposited as calcium salts</p></li><li><p>Bone RemodelingBone Remodeling</p><p>2) pull of gravity and muscles on bone2) pull of gravity and muscles on bone Necessary to retain proportions and strength during Necessary to retain proportions and strength during </p><p>growthgrowth Bones become thicker and form projections where Bones become thicker and form projections where </p><p>bulky muscles attachedbulky muscles attached No stress bones weaken and atrophyNo stress bones weaken and atrophy</p><p> CaCa++++ uptake/release and remodeling work together uptake/release and remodeling work together PTH determines WHEN bone broken down or deposited based PTH determines WHEN bone broken down or deposited based </p><p>on [Caon [Ca++++] in blood] in blood Muscle pull and gravity determine WHERE bone broken down Muscle pull and gravity determine WHERE bone broken down </p><p>or deposited or deposited </p></li><li><p>Bone FracturesBone Fractures Occur less often in youth, Occur less often in youth, </p><p>requires exceptional trauma requires exceptional trauma twists or smashes twists or smashes</p><p> Two types simple or Two types simple or compoundcompound Comminuted many fragmentsComminuted many fragments Compression crushedCompression crushed Depressed broken bone Depressed broken bone </p><p>portion pressed inward (skull)portion pressed inward (skull) Impacted broken ends forced Impacted broken ends forced </p><p>into each otherinto each other Spiral ragged break due to Spiral ragged break due to </p><p>twistingtwisting Greenstick incomplete breakGreenstick incomplete break</p><p>http://www.hivandhepatitis.com/2008icr/ddw/docs/060308_b.html</p><p>http://www.itim.nsw.gov.au/index.cfm?objectid=2A54AE6D-1321-1C29-707811D2028CC580</p></li><li><p>Bone RepairBone Repair Reduction closed or open, Reduction closed or open, </p><p>immobilization to all healingimmobilization to all healing1)1) Hematoma formsHematoma forms blood blood </p><p>vessels broken, blood filled vessels broken, blood filled swellingswelling</p><p>2)2) Fibrocartilage callus Fibrocartilage callus formationformation mass of repair mass of repair tissue cartilage matrix, tissue cartilage matrix, bony matrix, and collagen bony matrix, and collagen fibers, act as splintfibers, act as splint</p><p>3)3) Bony Callus formsBony Callus forms osteoblasts and osteoclasts osteoblasts and osteoclasts migrate to break, spongy migrate to break, spongy bone callus formsbone callus forms</p><p>4)4) Bone RemodelingBone Remodeling permanent patch due to permanent patch due to stressesstresses</p><p>http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_57e2KV2nOZs/SAGetjS3TjI/AAAAAAAAAY8/rvhaSyEf-us/s400/bone+repair.jpg </p></li><li><p>Axial SkeletonAxial SkeletonBones of SkullBones of Skull</p><p> Cranium + facialCranium + facial Cranium encloses Cranium encloses </p><p>brain tissuebrain tissue Facial hold eyes, Facial hold eyes, </p><p>facial expressionsfacial expressions Joined by sutures Joined by sutures </p><p>immovable joints immovable joints 1 exception what is 1 exception what is </p><p>it?it?http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_skull_side_simplified_(bones).svg</p></li><li><p>Cranium BonesCranium Bones Frontal foreheadFrontal forehead Parietal most of Parietal most of </p><p>cranium, sagittal cranium, sagittal suturesuture</p><p> Temporal around Temporal around ear, squamous sutureear, squamous suture</p><p> Occipital floor and Occipital floor and back, lambdoid sutureback, lambdoid suture</p><p> Sphenoid butterfly Sphenoid butterfly shapedshaped</p><p>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_skull_side_simplified_(bones).svg</p></li><li><p>Facial Bones and DamageFacial Bones and Damage</p><p>http://www.physioweb.org/skeletal/skeletal_struct.html</p><p>http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/BD/cleft.htm</p><p>Cleft Palate incomplete Maxillae formation</p><p>http://www.peidental.ca/cleft.html</p></li><li><p>Infant vs Adult SkullInfant vs Adult Skull</p><p> InfantInfant Face small to craniumFace small to cranium Cranium body lengthCranium body length Fibrous regions fontanels Fibrous regions fontanels </p><p>allow compression, brain allow compression, brain growthgrowth</p><p> AdultAdult Completely ossifiedCompletely ossified Fused at suturesFused at sutures 1/8 body length1/8 body length</p><p>http://www.waukesha.uwc.edu/lib/reserves/pdf/zillgitt/zoo170/diagrams2/diagrams2.html</p></li><li><p>Vertebral Column Vertebral Column </p><p> Axial Support of bodyAxial Support of body Skull to pelvisSkull to pelvis 26 vertebrae (which type?) 26 vertebrae (which type?) </p><p>connected and reinforced by connected and reinforced by ligamentsligaments</p><p> Protects spinal cordProtects spinal cord Before birth 33 vertebraeBefore birth 33 vertebrae Separated by fibrocartilage Separated by fibrocartilage </p><p>intervertebral discsintervertebral discshttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray_111_-_Vertebral_column-coloured.png</p></li><li><p>Vertebral ColumnVertebral Column Discs and S-shape Discs and S-shape </p><p>prevent shock to head prevent shock to head and make trunk flexibleand make trunk flexible</p><p> Primary curvatures Primary curvatures thoracic and sacral thoracic and sacral regionsregions Make C-shape of newbornMake C-shape of newborn</p><p> Secondary curvatures Secondary curvatures cervical and lumbarcervical and lumbar Develop after birthDevelop after birth Allow to center weightAllow to center weight</p><p>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray_111_-_Vertebral_column-coloured.png</p><p>http://www.sleepywrap.com/index.php?page=stroller-baby-carrier</p></li><li><p>Herniated DiscsHerniated Discs</p><p> Drying of discs, Drying of discs, weakening of weakening of ligaments predisposes ligaments predisposes older to problemolder to problem</p><p> Also caused due to Also caused due to exceptional twistingexceptional twisting</p><p> Pressure from disc on Pressure from disc on spinal cord or nerves spinal cord or nerves numbness and/or painnumbness and/or pain</p><p>http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/5274.html</p><p>http://myhealth.ucsd.edu/library/healthguide/en-us/support/topic.asp?hwid=zm5009</p></li><li><p>Abnormal Spine CurvaturesAbnormal Spine Curvatures</p><p>http://www.merinews.com/catFull.jsp?articleID=147926</p><p>http://www.spineuniverse.com/displayarticle.php/article3094.htmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2007/08/01/health/adam/9583Lordosis.html</p><p>Scoliosis, Kyphosis, Lordosis All are either congenital, result of disease, due to poor posture, or unequal pull of muscles on spine</p></li><li><p>Thoracic CageThoracic Cage</p><p> Also known as bony Also known as bony thorax thorax </p><p> Protects organs in Protects organs in thoracic cavitythoracic cavity</p><p> Made up of sternum, Made up of sternum, ribs, and thoracic ribs, and thoracic vertebraevertebrae What kind of bones What kind of bones </p><p>are these?are these?</p><p>http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrandsonc/bio201_McKinley/skeletal.htm</p></li><li><p>RibsRibs 12 pair12 pair True Ribs 1True Ribs 1stst 7 pair 7 pair</p><p> Attach to sternum via costal Attach to sternum via costal cartilagescartilages</p><p> False Ribs last 5 pairFalse Ribs last 5 pair Indirectly or not attached to Indirectly or not attached to </p><p>sternumsternum Floating Ribs last 2 pairFloating Ribs last 2 pair</p><p> Lack sternal attachmentLack sternal attachment</p><p>Intercostal space filled with Intercostal space filled with intercostal muscleintercostal muscle</p></li><li><p>Appendicular SkeletonAppendicular SkeletonShoulder GirdleShoulder Girdle</p><p> Consist of 2 bonesConsist of 2 bones</p><p> Clavicle collar boneClavicle collar bone</p><p> Scapula shoulder Scapula shoulder bladesblades</p><p>http://www.digitalartform.com/arc...</p></li></ul>

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