Skeletal System 206 bones in the body. BONES FUNCTIONS Supports body and provides shape. Protects internal organs. Movement and anchorage of muscles.

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Skeletal System 206 bones in the body Slide 2 BONES FUNCTIONS Supports body and provides shape. Protects internal organs. Movement and anchorage of muscles. Mineral storage. (Calcium and phorphorus) Hemopoiesis Slide 3 OSTEOCYTE mature bone cell OSTEOBLAST- Immature bone cell Slide 4 BONE FORMATION Embryo skeletal starts as osteoblasts (primitive embryonic cells) then change to cartilage. At 8 weeks, OSSIFICATION begins. (Mineral matter begins to replace cartilage Infant bones soft because ossification not complete at birth Slide 5 FONTANEL - Soft spot on babys head Will ossify (become hard bone) around 18 months of age Slide 6 STRUCTURE OF LONG BONE DIAPHYSIS shaft EPIPHYSES ends MEDULLARY CAVITY center of shaft, filled with yellow bone marrow, which is mostly fat cells, also cells that form white blood cells. Slide 7 ENDOSTEUM lines marrow cavity Shaft is made of COMPACT BONE ends are SPONGY BONE. Ends contain red marrow where red blood cells are made. PERIOSTEUM tough, outside covering of bone contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves. Slide 8 AXIAL & APPENDICULAR SKELETON AXIAL skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, hyoid APPENDICULAR shoulder girdle, arms, pelvis, legs Slide 9 Skull Comprised of 22 bones Cranium made up of 9 bones 1 frontal 2 parietal 2 temporal 1 occipital 1 ethmoid 1 sphenoid Slide 10 Skull/Facial Bones Facial bones make up the remaining 14 bones of the skull 2 nasal 1 vomer 2 inferior concha 2 maxilla 2 lacrimal 2 zygomatic 2 palatine 1 mandible Slide 11 Spine Vertebral Column Encloses the spinal cord Vertebrae bones of the spine separated by pads of cartilage called intervertebral discs Slide 12 Spinal column Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacrum Coccyx Slide 13 Ribs and Sternum Sternum divided into 3 parts bottom tip is XIPHOID PROCESS 12 pairs of ribs first 7 are true ribs connected to sternum by cartilage next 3 are false ribs cartilage connects them to 7 th rib (not sternum) next 2 are floating Slide 14 Appendicular Skeleton Shoulder Girdle clavicle collar bone scapula shoulder blade humerus upper arm radius and ulna lower arm Slide 15 Wrist/Hands Bones carpals wrist bones held together by ligaments metalcarpals hand bones phalanges fingers Slide 16 Pelvic Girdle pelvis 3 bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis) Slide 17 Leg Bones femur upper leg, longest and strongest bone in body tibia and fibula lower leg patella kneecap Slide 18 Foot/Ankle Bones tarsal bones ankle calcaneus heel bone metatarsals foot bones Slide 19 JOINTS Joints are points of contact between 2 bones classified according to movement: SYNOVIAL FLUID lubricating substance in joints Slide 20 Joints BALL AND SOCKET JOINT bone with ball-shaped head fits into concave socket of 2 nd bone. Shoulders and hips. HINGE JOINTS move in one direction or plane. Knees, elbows, outer joints of fingers. Slide 21 Joints PIVOT JOINT those with an extension rotate on a 2 nd, arch shaped bone. Radius and ulna, atlas and axis. GLIDING JOINTS flat surfaces glide across each other. Vertebrae of spine. SUTURE immovable joint Slide 22 Types of Motion Motion: Increase or decrease the angle between 2 bones. FLEXION Bending motion that decreases the angle of the joint bringing the 2 bones closer together. Slide 23 EXTENSION Movement that increases the angle between the 2 bones. Slide 24 ABDUCTION Movement of the limb along the frontal plane. Raising an arm laterally or spreading the fingers ADDUCTION Movement of the limb toward the body. CIRCUMDUCTION Movement of a limb in a circle or cone shape. Slide 25 ROTATION Turning of the bone along its own long axis. Only movement allowed between first 2 cervical vertebra Slide 26 PRONATION Movement of the radius around the ulna. palm faces down SUPINATION Movement of the radius around the ulna. palm faces up Slide 27 Disorders of the Bones and Joints FRACTURE a break Treated by: CLOSED REDUCTION cast or splint applied OPEN REDUCTION surgical intervention with devices such as wires, metal plates or screws to hold the bones in alignment (internal fixation) Slide 28 Treatment of Fractures TRACTION pulling force used to hold the bones in place used for fractures of long bones Slide 29 GREENSTICK in children, bone bent and splintered but never completely separate Slide 30 Spiral-twisting of bone causes bone to break Slide 31 Comminuted Fracture Bone will break into many fragments or pieces Slide 32 Compound Fracture The bone will break through the skin A simple fracture, the bone does not penetrate through the skin Slide 33 DISLOCATION bone displaced from proper position in joint SPRAIN sudden or unusual motion, ligaments torn but joint not dislocated STRAIN overstretching or tearing muscle Slide 34 Diseases of Bones ARTHRITIS inflammation of one or more joints Slide 35 Abnormal curvatures of the spine: KYPHOSIS hunchback LORDOSIS swayback SCOLIOSIS lateral curvature Slide 36 Slide 37 Diagnosis and Treatment: ARTHROSCOPY examination into joint using arthroscope with fiber optic lens, most knee injuries treated with arthroscopy. Slide 38 Arthroscopy

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