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Roman Empire Continued. I. Theological State. A. Ideal of one emperor and one faith working together in mutual dependence B. Presents strengths and weaknesses for the empire. II. Challenge of the Monophysites A. Was Christ Divine and Human? B. Council of Chalcedon, 451 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Roman Empire Continued

  • I. Theological StateA. Ideal of one emperor and one faith working together in mutual dependence

    B. Presents strengths and weaknesses for the empire

  • II. Challenge of the Monophysites

    A. Was Christ Divine and Human?

    B. Council of Chalcedon, 451

    C. Divisions in the Empire 1. Monophysites vs. Chalcedonians2. Egypt, Palestine, Syria vs. Heartland

  • III. Glories and Agonies of Justinian and TheodoraA. Constantinople at its height1. 600,000 people2. Great walls, baths, gardens, churches, hippodrome 3. Blues and Greens B. Justinians wars of expansion1. Stress on finances and society2. Nika riotsa. Theodora saves the day

  • III. Glories and Agonies of Justinian and Theodora

    C. Constantinople rebuilt1. Hagia Sophia

  • Hagia Sohia, Constantinople 537

  • Hagia Sophia

    interior

  • Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691

  • Church of St. Basil,

    Moscow, 1561

  • III. Glories and Agonies of Justinian and Theodora

    C. Constantinople rebuilt1. Hagia Sophia2. Corpus Juris CivilisD. Monophysite Split unresolved

  • IV. Challenge of IslamRomans win a hard-fought victory over PersiansEast Rome at it military heightBut opens the door to Muslim conquests B. Muslim Empireanother theological state 1. Muhammad (570-632)

    C. Monophysite split helps Muslim conquest

  • IV. Challenge of IslamD. Effects of Muslim Conquests1. Reduces and eventually destroys East Roman Empire2. Christianity becomes a European religiona. East Romans defend Europe with dramatic defense of Constantinople b. Greek Fire used for the first time, 678

  • V. Iconoclasm and RenewalRoman vulnerability leads to theological doubtsIcons are portraits of saints, holy mena. convey spiritual power in private devotions2. Emperor Leo III (717-41) attacks icon worship

    B. Military situation improves and icons approved 1. Council of 843 gives the OK 2. Byzantine tradition of art continues

  • Psalter from the 10th century

  • Church of St. Clement

    Serbia, 13th century