Pre-Historic Hypertext

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<ul><li> 1. Prehistoric Hypertext Literature: Problems of defining a print-based hypertext corpus University of Bournemouth 28th November 2012 Simon Rowberry </li></ul> <p> 2. Hypertext Hyper + Text Non-sequential? Multi-linear? Link-and-node? Beyond link-and-node Electronic only? Spatial? Association? Tactical 3. Defining Hypertext Historically Ted Nelson (1965): Let me introduce the word "hypertext - to mean a body of written or pictorial material interconnected in such a complex way that it could not conveniently be presented or represented on paper. It may contain summaries, or maps of its contents and their interrelations; it may contain annotations, additions and footnotes from scholars who have examined it. Let me suggest that such an object and system, properly designed and administered, could have great potential for education, increasing the student's range of choices, his sense of freedom, his motivation, and his intellectual grasp (Complex Information Processing) 4. Defining Hypertext Historically Ted Nelson (1992): Hypertext was an audacious choice: hyper- has a bad odor in some fields and can suggest agitation and pathology, as it does in medicine and psychology. But in other sciences hyper- connotes extension and generality, as in the mathematical hyper- space, and this was the connotation I wanted to give the idea (Opening Hypertext: A Memoir) 5. Defining Hypertext Historically Robert Coover (1992): "Hypertext" is not a system but a generic term, coined a quarter of a century ago by a computer populist named Ted Nelson to describe the writing done in the nonlinear or nonsequential space made possible by the computer. (The End of Books, New York Times, June 21) 6. Defining Hypertext Historically Espen Aarseth (2003 [1994]): "Hypertext, for all its packaging and theories, is an amazingly simple concept. It is merely a direct connection from one position in a text to another. (Nonlinearity and Literary Theory in New Media Reader, 770) 7. Defining Hypertext Historically Michael Joyce (2002): "Hypertext is, before anything else, a visual form. Hypertext embodies information and communications, artistic and affective constructs, and conceptual abstractions alike into symbolic structures made visible on a computer controlled display. (Of Two Minds, 19) 8. Defining Hypertext Historically Andries van Dam (1987): Hypertext is basically clay, and we have to mold it (Hypertext 87 Keynote) 9. Hypertext History and Prehistory Borrowing Chris Funkhousers term via Ian Bogost 1986/7 as starting point: Institutionalisation ACM Hypertext conference Storyspace/NoteCards/Hypercard Or could it be with the widespread adoption of the WWW despite HT proponents? 10. Implicit and Explicit linking Linking through bibliographical codes: Table of contents Indexes The hyperlink Linking through linguistic codes: Intertextuality/Intratextuality Genres Neologisms Textual space and textual time are n-dimensional simply because they locate embodied actions and events (McGann, Radiant Textuality, xiv) 11. Technical Innovations Literary Hypertexts Print Hypertexts 12. Against Proto-Hypertext Several of the texts frequently referred to as proto-hypertext were written post- 1965 Hypertext is not fundamentally an electronic concept Often far too broad (Pre-)Historic hypertext is a better term 13. Jorges Luis Borges Ficciones Frequently alluded to, particularly: The Book of Sand The Library of Babel The Garden of Forking Paths NOT hypertextual Often a criticism of hypertext principles 14. Marc Saportas Composition No. 1 Loose leaf book with no structure Card metaphor c.f. Shuffle literature &amp; historic hypertext Anti-narrative To what extent can nodes alone sustain a hypertext narrative? 15. Choose Your Own Adventure Books First anecdotal response when print hypertext is suggested Often very linear No looping Very little, if any, recursion More puzzle than narrative 16. Edward Packard, The Cave of Time (1979) Diagram from 17. Gamebooks Simulation Dungeons &amp; Dragons Closer to Interactive Fiction Performative hypertext as performative Reading to play vs. reading to read 18. Single-player Gamebooks Dice on pages Guardfields If youve been to this paragraph before (The Hypnosis Engima, passim) Breadcrumb trails When you think you have the answer [to a riddle], take each letter of the answer convert it to it corresponding number in the alphabet If the paragraph you turn to is the wrong one (it wont make sense!), turn to 26 (Sword of the Samurai, 2) Choosing the correct party members Recursion more like computing 19. Complexity in The Hypnosis Engima 20. Italo Calvinos Invisible Cities Linguistic linking No central linking mechanism Xanadu-Venice connection Does this fit into the same category as Marc Saportas Composition No. 1 21. Vladimir Nabokovs Pale Fire link-and-node network model (1st generation) Extensive use of paratextual devices (2nd generation) Both uni- and multi-cursal (ergodic) - Aarseth Both modular and continuous 3 ways of reading in preface Complexity on multiple levels 22. Vladimir Nabokovs Pale Fire 23. What, then, does it mean to be hypertextual? </p>