Pre-Historic and Historic Indians OfAmericaandAlabama

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul><p>Pre-Historic and Historic Indians OfAmericaandAlabama Slide 2 Alabama Course of Study- Social Studies Alabama Course of Study- Social Studies 3 rd Grade 3 rd Grade Describe prehistoric and historic American Indian cultures, governments, and economies in Alabama. Describe prehistoric and historic American Indian cultures, governments, and economies in Alabama. Examples: prehistoric American Indians- Examples: prehistoric American Indians- Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian Woodland, Mississippian historic American Indians- historic American Indians- Choctaw, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek Cherokee, Creek Identifying roles of archaeologists and paleontologists Identifying roles of archaeologists and paleontologists Slide 3 The Paleo- Indians Slide 4 The first American Indians The first American Indians Arrived about 12,000 14,000 years ago. Arrived about 12,000 14,000 years ago. Originally nomadic Asian (mongoloid) hunters who crossed into North America via a 600 mile wide land bridge connecting Asia with North America in the area of the Bering Straight (Beringia). Originally nomadic Asian (mongoloid) hunters who crossed into North America via a 600 mile wide land bridge connecting Asia with North America in the area of the Bering Straight (Beringia). These hunters crossed the land bridge in pursuit of megafauna- large mammals of the era which included woolly mammoths, giant bison, mastodon, giant land sloth, and small animals such as miniature horses and camels. These hunters crossed the land bridge in pursuit of megafauna- large mammals of the era which included woolly mammoths, giant bison, mastodon, giant land sloth, and small animals such as miniature horses and camels. When the Ice Age ended, Beringia became covered with water- thus isolating the inhabitants of the Americas. When the Ice Age ended, Beringia became covered with water- thus isolating the inhabitants of the Americas. Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 By 8,000 B.C. the Paleo- Indians had peopled the North and South America continents to the tip of South America. By 8,000 B.C. the Paleo- Indians had peopled the North and South America continents to the tip of South America. About 9,000 B.C. the Clovis point a superior spear head- appeared in what is today the southwestern United States. About 9,000 B.C. the Clovis point a superior spear head- appeared in what is today the southwestern United States. As the climate began to change and as use of the clovis point spread, the big game and small horses died off- the largest animals left on the continents were the bear, bison, and moose. As the climate began to change and as use of the clovis point spread, the big game and small horses died off- the largest animals left on the continents were the bear, bison, and moose. Slide 9 Clovis points Slide 10 The Archaic Period The Cave- Dwellers Meso- Indian Period Slide 11 Considered the 2nd period of human occupation of the Americas. Considered the 2nd period of human occupation of the Americas. 8,000- 1,000 B.C. 8,000- 1,000 B.C. Archaic people typically lived in groups (bands) of 50-150 people. Archaic people typically lived in groups (bands) of 50-150 people. Nomadic people- hunters/ gathers- seasonal foods important- hickory nuts, acorns, persimmons, blackberries, etc deer, raccoons, squirrels, rabbits, etc. Nomadic people- hunters/ gathers- seasonal foods important- hickory nuts, acorns, persimmons, blackberries, etc deer, raccoons, squirrels, rabbits, etc. Many Archaic people located themselves near streams and rivers- fish, mussels, etc. (Shell mounds emerge- some over 15 ft. high.) Many Archaic people located themselves near streams and rivers- fish, mussels, etc. (Shell mounds emerge- some over 15 ft. high.) Slide 12 Slide 13 The atlatl (spear thrower) was developed as to improve hunting. The atlatl (spear thrower) was developed as to improve hunting. - this improved range and velocity. - this improved range and velocity. Slide 14 New technologies emerge- grinding stone for weapons and tools. New technologies emerge- grinding stone for weapons and tools. Projectile Points become more varied and sophisticated. Projectile Points become more varied and sophisticated. Personal items such as stone pipes and cooking vessels emerge. Personal items such as stone pipes and cooking vessels emerge. Copper is first used by Native Americans during this period. Copper is first used by Native Americans during this period. Slide 15 Russell Cave in Dorans Cove (Bridgeport) in Jackson County was used for over 10,000 years by Paleo- Indians and their descendants. Russell Cave in Dorans Cove (Bridgeport) in Jackson County was used for over 10,000 years by Paleo- Indians and their descendants. It is believed that Native Americans were making use of this cave as early as 9,000 years ago. It is believed that Native Americans were making use of this cave as early as 9,000 years ago. Slide 16 Russell Cave is considered by most archaeologists to be the earliest known site of human occupation in the Southeastern U.S. Russell Cave is considered by most archaeologists to be the earliest known site of human occupation in the Southeastern U.S. Slide 17 Slide 18 The Woodland Period Slide 19 Period of human history in the Americas between the Archaic and Mississippian Periods. Period of human history in the Americas between the Archaic and Mississippian Periods. Named for the eastern woodlands of North America. Named for the eastern woodlands of North America. 300 B.C.- 1,000 A.D. 300 B.C.- 1,000 A.D. This period is considered a developmental stage without any massive changes in a short time but instead having a continuous development in tools, textiles and leather, farming, and shelter construction. This period is considered a developmental stage without any massive changes in a short time but instead having a continuous development in tools, textiles and leather, farming, and shelter construction. Late in the period, Native Americans begin to use bows and arrows and blowguns in addition to spears and atlatls. Late in the period, Native Americans begin to use bows and arrows and blowguns in addition to spears and atlatls. Slide 20 Native Americans of this period began to construct permanent homes. Native Americans of this period began to construct permanent homes. Native American towns first began to appear. Native American towns first began to appear. Earthen mounds were first raised over graves. Earthen mounds were first raised over graves. Slide 21 Late in this period Three Sisters farming was introduced. Late in this period Three Sisters farming was introduced. The three sisters are corn (maize), beans, and squash. The three sisters are corn (maize), beans, and squash. -these crops became the staple crops for -these crops became the staple crops for Native Americans throughout the Southeast Native Americans throughout the Southeast and for other farming societies in the and for other farming societies in the Southwest and Northeast. Southwest and Northeast. -Native Americans also raised peppers, -Native Americans also raised peppers, melons, amaranth, grapes, hemp, etc. melons, amaranth, grapes, hemp, etc. Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 24 The Mississippian Period The Mound Builders Slide 25 Appeared 700 to 900 A.D. Appeared 700 to 900 A.D. Peaked around 1300 A.D. Peaked around 1300 A.D. Named for the Mississippi River as Native Americans of this period often located their towns near rivers- the Mississippi, Tennessee, Cumberland, and Warrior, and many others. Named for the Mississippi River as Native Americans of this period often located their towns near rivers- the Mississippi, Tennessee, Cumberland, and Warrior, and many others. The Native Americans of this period are known for the huge earthen mounds which they build as foundations for temples, homes for leaders, religious ceremony, burials, etc. The Native Americans of this period are known for the huge earthen mounds which they build as foundations for temples, homes for leaders, religious ceremony, burials, etc. There are many examples of these mounds throughout the Southeast including many in Alabama. There are many examples of these mounds throughout the Southeast including many in Alabama. Slide 26 Etowah Mounds- near Calhoun, Georgia Etowah Mounds- near Calhoun, Georgia Slide 27 Mounds at Moundville, Alabama Mounds at Moundville, Alabama Slide 28 At its height, the town at Moundville was home to over 3,000 people- making it the second largest Indian town north of present- day Mexico. At its height, the town at Moundville was home to over 3,000 people- making it the second largest Indian town north of present- day Mexico. Slide 29 Artifacts from Moundville Artifacts from Moundville Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 The Indians of Alabama The Big Four The Civilized Tribes of Alabama Slide 34 The Choctaw Major tribe of Mississippi- region though extends into west-central Alabama north of Mobile. Major tribe of Mississippi- region though extends into west-central Alabama north of Mobile. The word Alabama come from the Choctaw- it means clearers of the ticket. The word Alabama come from the Choctaw- it means clearers of the ticket. The Choctaw have historically been called the Longhairs or the Flatheads (infants were often bound to a cradle board and a slanted plank was used to slope their foreheads as the developed. The Choctaw have historically been called the Longhairs or the Flatheads (infants were often bound to a cradle board and a slanted plank was used to slope their foreheads as the developed. Slide 35 Slide 36 Early 19th century and contemporary Choctaw storytellers describe that the Choctaw people emerged from either Nanih Waiya or a cave nearby. A companion story describes their migration journey from the west, beyond the Mississippi River, when they were directed by their leader's use of a sacred pole. Early 19th century and contemporary Choctaw storytellers describe that the Choctaw people emerged from either Nanih Waiya or a cave nearby. A companion story describes their migration journey from the west, beyond the Mississippi River, when they were directed by their leader's use of a sacred pole. Slide 37 The Choctaws, a great many winters ago, commenced moving from the country where they then lived, which was a great distance to the west of the great river and the mountains of snow, and they were a great many years on their way. A great medicine man led them the whole way, by going before with a red pole, which he stuck in the ground every night where they encamped. This pole was every morning found leaning to the east, and he told them that they must continue to travel to the east until the pole would stand upright in their encampment, and that there the Great Spirit had directed that they should live. The Choctaws, a great many winters ago, commenced moving from the country where they then lived, which was a great distance to the west of the great river and the mountains of snow, and they were a great many years on their way. A great medicine man led them the whole way, by going before with a red pole, which he stuck in the ground every night where they encamped. This pole was every morning found leaning to the east, and he told them that they must continue to travel to the east until the pole would stand upright in their encampment, and that there the Great Spirit had directed that they should live. ~ George Caitlin ~ George Caitlin Slide 38 Slide 39 Slide 40 Slide 41 Choctaw Coat Choctaw Coat Slide 42 The Chickasaws Occupied an area of what is today Northwest Alabama. Occupied an area of what is today Northwest Alabama. The Chickasaw were a very aggressive people and often prone to war The Chickasaw were a very aggressive people and often prone to war Often painted their bodies black and red in preparation for war, Often painted their bodies black and red in preparation for war, They were known for their woefully eerie war cry that some historians think was the origin of the Rebel Yell. They were known for their woefully eerie war cry that some historians think was the origin of the Rebel Yell. Slide 43 Slide 44 The Creeks The true name of the Creeks is Muskogee- they were named Creeks by English settlers because of the location of their towns near creeks. The true name of the Creeks is Muskogee- they were named Creeks by English settlers because of the location of their towns near creeks. The Creeks are the largest and most significant of the Indian groups in Alabama- of all Indians living in Alabama were of the Creek Nation. The Creeks are the largest and most significant of the Indian groups in Alabama- of all Indians living in Alabama were of the Creek Nation. Slide 45 Slide 46 The Creek Nation was divided into the: The Creek Nation was divided into the: A. Upper Creeks B. Lower Creeks The Creek towns were also divided into peace (white) and war (red) towns with separate chiefs for each. The Creek towns were also divided into peace (white) and war (red) towns with separate chiefs for each. The Creeks lived in one of twenty different clans which included the Bear, Beaver, Hickory Nut, Salt, Toad, and Wild-cat clans. The Creeks lived in one of twenty different clans which included the Bear, Beaver, Hickory Nut, Salt, Toad, and Wild-cat clans. Slide 47 Slide 48 The Cherokee The Principal People The Principal People The name means people of the cave country. The name means people of the cave country. The Cherokee are of the Iroquoian language group. The Cherokee are of the Iroquoian language group. It is believed that the Cherokee migrated from the Great Lakes region or Pennsylvania before settling in the mountains of the Southeast. It is believed that the Cherokee migrated from the Great Lakes region or Pennsylvania before settling in the mountains of the Southeast. Slide 49 Slide 50 The Cherokee are organized into seven different clans The Cherokee are organized into seven different clans Slide 51 Slide 52 Slide 53 Slide 54 Cherokee Towns "Five Lower Towns" on or near the Tennessee River "Five Lower Towns" on or near the Tennessee River 1. Running Water (now Whiteside) 1. Running Water (now Whiteside) 2. Nickajack (near the cave of the same name) 2. Nickajack (near the cave of the same name) 3. Long Island (on the Tennessee River) 3. Long Island (on the Tennessee River) 4. Crow Town (at the mouth of Crow Creek) 5. Lookout Mountain Town (now Trenton, 4. Crow Town (at the mouth of Crow Creek) 5. Lookout Mountain Town (now Trenton, GA) GA) Slide 55 Later major settlements of the Lower Cherokee included: Later major settlements of the Lower Cherokee included: 1. Willstown (Fort Payne) 1. Willstown (Fort Payne) 2. Turkey Town (Centre) 2. Turkey Town (Centre) 3. Sauta (Jackson/Marshall County) 3. Sauta (Jackson/Marshall County) 4. Creek Path (Guntersville) 4. Creek Path...</p>