Living stone age

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<ul><li><p>Living in the Stone Age</p></li><li><p>Examining History: PrehistoryPRE-HISTORY- period before written historyApproximately 1.75 million years ago, earliest people first began using small pieces of rock as toolsMassive development of humans over years in 4 major groups: 1) Homo Habilis (2 million years ago) 2) Homo Erectus (1 million years ago) 3) Neanderthal (100 000 years ago) 4) Cro-Magnon (50 000 years ago)</p></li><li><p>Development of HumansHomo Habilis Latin for handy man Lived in eastern Africa &gt; spread north to Asiafossilized human bones found with stone tools and animal fossilsSkulls humans had a flatter head with a brain only 2/3 size; approximately 1.5 m tallBuilt shelters of braches and collected bird eggs and wild berries for food; hunted wild pigsTools / weapons = rocks, braches, sharp stonesNo clothesDid not know how to use fireHomo ErectusLatin for upright man Discoveries of Java Man (Indonesia) and Peking Man (ChinaLived in Afria, south Europe, AsiaSkulls- humans had long, flat and sharply angled at back (between ape and human head)Thighbone- identical to modern humans &gt; walk uprightCharred animals bones found = they used fire to cookBelief that homo erectus was a descendant of homo habilisMake fire= first by coals or volcanic ash; later by friction= made life easier as they could survive in colder climatesTools / weapons= bones, rocks, blades for carving, spears Homo SapiensLatin for reasoning man 250 000 years ago= emergence of Homo Sapiens who evolved from homo erectusis the species to which all modern day people belong</p></li><li><p>Neanderthals vs Cro MagnonNEANDERATHAL Neander Valley- Germany6 cm taller than homo erectus; thick eyebrow ridgeTools= knives, spear sharpeners made from chipped rockAnimals hides worn as clothesLived in caves kept warm with fireFirst to bury the dead (graves with bodies carefully preparedCRO MAGNON South France- clearing away earth from back of a rock shelter locally known as Cro-MagnonFirst appeared in Europe 30 000 years ago following ice ageBrain as large as modern day human; approx. 2 metres tall with modern facesTools= slim, sharp edge blades, chisels, knives, spearheads, lamps (stone bowl with animal grease and lit fur or moss)Animals bones and teeth used to make musical instruments, jewelleryCave paintingsFierce warriorsWiped out Neanderthals</p></li><li><p>Great Leap Forward35 000 years ago when changes brought about innovation, creativity to humans (Homo Sapiens Sapiens)</p><p>2 FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES OCCURRED: Development of modern anatomyBeginning of innovative behaviour EFFECTSProduction of crafted tools and more sophisticated weaponsdevelopment of trade for raw materials and ornamentsEmergence of sculptures, paintings and crafted objects that showcased beauty and religion</p></li><li><p>Lithos = stonePaleolithic AgeGreek paleo means oldUpper Paleolithic age was 50 000 10 000 years ago</p><p>Neolithic AgeGreek neo means newNeolithic Revolution occurred between 9000 4000 BCE</p></li><li><p>Comparing the Stone Ages</p><p>PALEOLITHICsmall groups of 5-10 familiesNomadic to semi-nomadic Closer relationships between bands of people ie. Cro-Magnon society</p><p>NEOLITHICPeople abandoned semi-nomadic life and began farmingAgricultural revolution was a progression of the Great Leap Forwardplanting of crops domesticating of animalsBetter tools &amp; weapons</p></li><li><p>Social Structure: Paleolithic Agecloser social relationships Social stratification= emergence of leadership and beginning of social classes Social roles: patriarchal; men were big game hunters women captured small game and made clothing; women &amp; children were gatherers</p></li><li><p>Social Structure: Neolithic AgeIncreasing knowledge = more control of food supply End of Ice Age = better for agriculture As population grew, so did the competition for land Shift from semi-nomadic to permanent towns and cities (first city was Jericho, in Mesopotamia between 8000 7000 BCE) and more occupations Trade by barter system (obsidian most valued traded material traded for farm produce) Development of hierarchical class system</p></li><li><p>Religion &amp; Art in Paleolithic Age</p><p>The Paleolithic Age (Cro-Magnon) was the first to develop fine art as drawings CAVE PAINTINGS of deer, horses and animals which are now extinct cultural explosion in art as more tools, jewellery, and sculptures/ figurines of clay, ivory and stone emerged More advanced spiritual practices with graves found jewellery and spears made of mammoth tusks buried with bodies = this suggests a ritual burial with a view of an afterlife</p></li><li><p>Caves at Lascaux [lass co]</p><p>Painting at Lascaux Caves (south central France) found in 15 000 BCEPainters used irregularities in cave walls to add a 3-D effect to figuresPaintings portray an awe and reverence towards animals which shows that for the first time people were expressing religious beliefs (rituals related to hunting magic; sacrifices of animals) </p></li><li><p>Venus of WillendorfSmall sculptures such as the Venus of Willendorf were common to the Paleolithic Age Sculpture features exaggerated curves (large breasts and wide hips) on female figure Venus figurines are symbolic of the importance of fertility of a mother goddess</p></li><li><p>Weapons &amp; TechnologyPALEOLITHICBetter hunting strategies due to co-operation and more lethal weapons Better tools for skinning game, preparing food, sewing clothesCro-Magnons stored food over winter showing more planningbow and arrow around 20 000 BCE</p><p>NEOLITHICefficient tools which helped farm and make weapons and toolsDomestication of animals to do manual work and the planting of crops freed people from the pursuit of foodleisure activities (art, music, sports, religion)</p></li><li><p>STONEHENGEStonehenge is located on Salisbury Plain in EnglandCreated 2800-1500 BCEStonehenge is an example of a Neolithic megalith (megalith = Greek for big stones)Exact purpose is unknown: religious rituals, agricultural markers or astronomical observatories?</p></li><li><p>Mystery of StonehengeStonehenge was built in 3 major stages over 1300 years (tribal people, Beaker people, Battle Axe folk people Megaliths stones approx. 45 t and Heel Stone is 31 tGreat debate over the positioning of the stones stones reflect an understanding of astronomy and mathematics (positions reflect sunrise, eclipses of sun and moonstones could be a religious ritual to sun or moon godsOthers believe stones were built to show changing seasons for agriculture</p></li><li><p>Major Innovations of the Stone AgeMore complex human societies (from semi-nomadic to permanent cities; domestication of animals; leisure time)Development of social hierarchiesDevelopment of alliances and cooperationMarriage customs Development of trade goods and routesReligious rituals Refined sense of artistic beauty</p></li><li><p>ALL THESE LEAD TO THE FIRST CIVILIZATION</p><p>Homo Habilis Latin for handy man Discoveries in 1930s by Louis and Mary LeakeyLived in eastern Africa &gt; spread north to Asiafossilized human bones found with stone tools and animal fossilsSkulls humans had a flatter head with a brain only 2/3 size; approximately 1.5 m tallBuilt shelters of braches and collected bird eggs and wild berries for food; hunted wild pigsTools / weapons = rocks, braches, sharp stonesNo clothesDid not know how to use fire</p><p>Paleolithic- 1) People lived in small groups of 5-10 families2) Nomadic to semi-nomadic (hunting and gathering) 3) close relationships between bands of people ie. Cro-Magnon society NEOLITHIC1) People abandoned semi-nomadic life and began farming</p><p>1) Beginnings of closer social relationships (arranged marriages with other bands, bartering for raw materials)2) Beginning of stratification= emergence of leadership and beginning of social classes (age, gender, experiences)3) men were big game hunters; women captured small game4) women &amp; children were gatherers (approx. 60-70% of diet came from roots, potatoes, fruits, berries) 5) Women made clothing from animal hides and nurtured children</p><p>Increasing knowledge of plants and animals allowed more control of food supplyEnd of Ice Age brought a warmer, wetter climate which brought new wild grasses and grainsAs population grew, so did the competition for landShift from semi-nomadic to the building of permanent towns and cities (first city was Jericho, in Mesopotamia between 8000 7000 BCE)Trade by barter system was a crucial factor in the origin of cities (obsidian a volcanic glass was one of the most valued traded materials (tools, weapons, art) would be traded for farm produceDevelopment of hierarchical class systemDomestication animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs)More occupations emerged with more permanent cities and townsThe Paleolithic Age (Cro-Magnon) was the first to develop fine art as drawingsOver 100 European caves showcase CAVE PAINTINGS of deer, horses and animals which are now extinctBeginnings of cultural explosion in art as more tools, pendants, jewellery, and sculptures/ figurines of clay, ivory and stone emergedMore advanced spiritual practices emerged as graves were found containing beads, ivory jewellery and spears made of mammoth tusks buried with bodies = this suggests a ritual burial with a view of an afterlife</p><p>PALEOLITHICBetter hunting strategies due to co-operation and more lethal weapons Better tools for skinning game, preparing food, sewing clothesCro-Magnons stored food over winter showing more planningInvention of the bow and arrow around 20 000 BCE made hunting more easy NEOLITHICMore efficient tools (sickle made of flint blades and antler; axes, hoe, copper use) which helped farm and make weapons and toolsDomestication of animals to do manual work and the planting of crops freed people from the pursuit of foodNew time for leisure activities (art, music, sports, religion)</p></li></ul>