japanese verb conjugation part 1
Post on 26-Dec-2014
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1. There are 3 kinds of verbs in Japanese.
Godan verbsIchidan verbsIrregular verbs
2. There are two kinds of speech in Japanese (Formal/Informal) Therefore all verbs have two forms (Informal/formal)
3. Japanese verbs have no future tenses. Go and Will go both mean the same thing in Japanese. There is no distinction between the two.
4. There are 4 verb tenses in Japanese.Present affirmative ( I walk/I will walk)Present negative (I dont walk/I wont walk)Past affirmative (I walked)Past negative (I didnt walk)
1. What are Godan verbs?Godan verbs are also known as u verbs becausethey end in (u).(but not in iru/-eru *with some exceptions)
Lets look at some examples of Godan verbs
Godan verbs(notice how they all end in u)
I know what they look like now, but how do I conjugate them?! :ODont worry !
First, let's begin with Godan verbconjugations in the present affirmative tense.
*(Remember that Japanese verbs dont conjugate in the future tense so I do & I will do mean the same thing.)
Step 1 : Drop the final u ( aruku becomes aruk )
Step2: Add imasu to the stem( aruk Becomes arukimasu)
arukimasu = (I) walk/(I) will walk
Done! You have just conjugated your first GodanVerb in the present affirmative.
aruku (to walk) NotesYou may be asking yourself why aruku was changed to arukimasu. The reason for this is that aruku is the dictionary form of the verb to walk. This means that if you look up aruku in a Japanese dictionary you will find it but if you look up arukimasu you wont. The verb aruku is considered informal, while arukimasu is the formal form. They both mean the same thing. In fact you can interchangeably say them to a native Japanese speaker and they will understand you perfectly, but it is important to keep in mind that formality is necessary since Japanese is a very formal language. So we use arukimasu.
The stem is what is left of the word after you remove the final -u. ex: aruku /aruk aruk is the stem of aruku
When speaking with friends you can use aruku because the conversation is casual/informal, but if you are speaking to a stranger or a superior, you must use the formal arukimasu instead.Ready to conjugate another Godan verb?Step 1: Drop the final u ( oyogu becomes oyog )
Step 2: Add imasu to the stem( oyog becomes oyogimasu )
oyogimasu = (I) swim/(I) will swim
Done! You have now turned the informal oyogu into its formal form (oyogimasu)oyogu ( to swim)Lets try one more! kiku drop the final u kik you are left with the stem kik kik + imasu add imasu to the stem kikimasu = (I) listen/(I) will listen Done!kiku ( to listen)Up until now you have learned how to conjugate Godan verbs in the present affirmative tenseEx:( I walk/I will walk)
Now its time to learn how to conjugate verbs inthe present negative tenseEx: ( I dont walk/I wont walk)1.aruku drop the final u2.aruk you now have the stem aruk3.aruk + imasen add -imasen to the stem arukimasen = (I) dont walk/(I) wont walk
Compare:arukimasu = I walk / I will walk Present affirmativearukimasen = I dont walk / I wont walk Present negative
aruku (to walk)oyogu (to swim)oyogu drop the final uoyog now you have the stem oyogoyog + imasen add imasen to the stem
oyogimasen = (I) dont swim/ (I) will not swim
Compare:oyogimasu=I swim/I will swimoyogimasen=I dont swim/I wont swimkiku drop the final ukik you get the stem kikkik + imasen add imasen to the stem
kikimasen = (I) dont listen/(I) wont listen
Compare :kikimasu= I listen / I will listen kikimasen = I dont listen/ I wont listenkiku (to listen)Now , that we have gone over conjugations of verbs in the present affirmative and present negative. Its time to inform you about the exceptions to these rules.
Dont fear the exceptions. Just follow closely!
hanasu (to speak) This here is a Godan verb because it ends in (u), but this Godan verb conjugates a bit differently from its other Godan buddies.
*Anytime that a Godan verb ends in -su , you must change the -su to -shi.
Lets look at an example of how hanasu is conjugated.
Topic: Exceptions to the rule.-su ending godan verb conjugations Present affirmative: Step 1: replace the -su with -shi (hanasu = hanashi)Step 2: add -masu (hanashi + masu = hanashimasu)
Present negative:Step 1: replace -su with -shi (hanasu = hanashi)Step 2: hanashi add -masen (hanashi + masen = hanashimasen )
Hanashimasu = I have/ I will have present affirmativeHanashimasen= I dont have / I wont have present negative
-su ending verbs are not the only exception, you must also watch out for tsu ending verbs. such as motsu = to have
Anytime you encounter a -tsu ending verb you must change the tsu to chi.
Lets look at how motsu is conjugated.-tsu ending verb conjugationsPresent affirmative: 1: replace tsu with chi *ex: (motsu=mochi) 2: add masu *ex : (mochi + masu= mochimasu)
Present negative: 1. replace tsu with -chi *ex: (motsu=mochi) 2. add masen *ex: (mochi + masen = mochimasen)
Compare:mochimasu = I have / I will have mochimasen= I dont have/ I wont have
Recap We learned:
There are 3 kinds of verbs (godan,ichidan and irregular verbs)Japanese verbs have no future tense.Godan verbs end in u but never in iru/-eru.(w/some exceptions)The dictionary form of a verb is Informal.In order to make an informal verb formal we must add a masu or masen ending.Every verb has a formal and informal form.When dropping the final u of a godan verb we are left with what is called the stem.-su and -tsu ending verbs conjugate differently than other Godan verbs.(They are the exception to the rule and their conjugations must be memorized because they dont follow any specific rule.)
Use the following charts as your guide on how to conjugate Godan verbs in the present affirm. and present neg.Dictionary form(informal) Present affirmative (formal) Present negative (formal)Dictionary form(informal) Present affirmative (formal) Present negative (formal) Please note that tobu can mean either jump or fly. The verb tatsu is a Godan verb just like the rest but remember that when a Godan verb ends in tsu, you conjugate it differently than the other Godan verbs. Remember that the tsu ending is replaced by the chi ending!The verb hanasu is a Godan verb as well , but conjugates differently from the rest. Remember that a verb ending in su must be replaced with the ending shi.Part 2 will be uploaded shortly!
In part 2 we will discuss:Conjugating Godan verbs in the past affirmative & past negative.(Formal)