Inventions and Discoveries in Physics and Chemistry

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  • 8/12/2019 Inventions and Discoveries in Physics and Chemistry


    Important Inventions and discoveries

    Inventions and discoveries in Physics and Chemistry

    AndersonDiscovered positive electrons.

    ArchimedesDiscovery of the Principles of lever and of specific gravity; invention of

    the famous Archimedean screw.

    AvogadroAn Italian scientist known for Avogadros Hypothesis.

    ac!uerel"adio#activity of uranium.


    aron %apier&ogarithms.

    en'amin (ranklinInvented lightning conductor.

    essemer)teel smelting process.ha*ha+ Dr H.,."esearch in -osmic rays and uantum theory.

    inetIntelligence $est.

    ir*al )ahni"esearches in otany.

    ose+ ,.-.Invented -rescograph and pu*lished many works on plant physiology. He

    discovered that plants have sense and perception.

    ose+ ).%.Discovery of a group of nuclear particles named after him /oson0.

    oyleoyles law; Pressure 1 volume 2 constant at a constant given temperature.

    oyle was the greatest scientist of 3ngland in his time.

    ohr3lectron $heoryAtomic structure.

    raun+ Dr 4ernher vonspace flying.

    unsenInvention of the spectroscope.

    -arothers%ylon plastics.

    -avendishDiscovery of chemical composition of water; discovery of hydrogen

    5Inflamma*le Air6; 7rare gases.

    -hadwickDiscovery of the neutron.

    -handrasekhar8athematical Astrophysics.

    -harles Darwin$heory of 3volution; 9rigin of )pecies.

    -larke+ Arthur -.-oncept of :eostationary 9r*it.

    -urie+ 8adameDiscovery of radium.

  • 8/12/2019 Inventions and Discoveries in Physics and Chemistry


    DaltonAtomic theory; laws of chemical com*ination; law of partial pressures; the law

    of multiple proportions.

    Democritus:reek philosopher5Atomic theory6.

    DewarInvented cordite+ li!uid o1ygen and introduced thermos flask.

    3instein$heory of relativity.

    3uclid)cience of geometry.

    (ahrenheit(ahrenheit mercury thermometric scale in which freeing point is ? and

    *oiling point is >@>?.

    (araday3lectromagnetic induction and laws of electrolysis.

    (ermiDiscovered artificial splitting of atoms.

    (reudDoctrine of Psycho#analysis.

    :ay &ussac&aw of gases.

    :auss)ystem of a*solute electric measurements.

    :ood earDiscovered the art of vulcanising ru**er.

    Herschel+ 4illiamDiscovered the PlanetBranus.

    Hert3lectrical waves.

    Hippalus(ounder of scientific astronomy.

    HoffmannDiscovered the first aniline dye.

    Celvin+ &ordDynamical theory of heat.

    Chorana+ Dr Hargo*indDeciphering the genetic code.

    Codak(ilm and photographic goods.

    &a*lanc8anufacture of washing soda.

    &awrenceInvention of cyclotron.

    &ockyerHelium gas.

    &ouis raillePerfected his system of reading and writing for the *lind.

    8arconi4ireless telegraphy; radio.

    8aria#8ontessori78ontessori method of teaching children.

    8a1well3lectro#magnetic $heory of &ight.

    8eghnad )aha3ffect of pressure on "adiation through *odies.

    8endel&aws of heredity.

    8andeleevPeriodic $a*le.

  • 8/12/2019 Inventions and Discoveries in Physics and Chemistry


    8orse8orse system of electric telegraphy.

    %ewton&aws of gravitation; &aw of 8otion.


    9liver &odgePhysicist. "esearches in wireless communications.

    9ppenheimer"esearches in atomic theory.

    9tto HahnDiscovery of uranium fission.


    Parsons)team tur*ine.

    Pavlov$heory of -onditioned "efle1.

    Perkin78auve dye.

    Pitman(ounded the Pitman system of phonographic shorthand.

    Planckuantum theory.

    PlimsollIntroduced a line of demarcation on the ships *eyond which the ships cannot

    *e loaded.

    PriestleyDiscovery of 91ygen.

    "aman+ -../"aman 3ffect0 on polarisation of light and theories on crystals and

    diamond formation.

    "amanathan8olecular scattering of light in fluids.

    "amanu'amA great Indian mathematician.

    "amsayDiscovery of Inert gases such as Argon+ %eon+ Helium etc.

    "ay+ P.-."esearches in chemistry.

    "egnault31periments in regard to the physical properties of *odies and their relation to


    "oger acon:un powder.

    "ontgenDiscovery of E#rays.

    "ohmkorffInduction coil.

    "utherfordAtomic "esearch; succeeded in splitting the atom for the first time in @F@G.


    )tephensonritish engineer and pioneer in "ailways. He was the first to put a

    locomotive on the line that was a*le to draw a train of =@ carriages.

    $homson+ ,.,.Discovered electron.

  • 8/12/2019 Inventions and Discoveries in Physics and Chemistry


    $raversDiscovery of %eon gas 54orking with "amsay6.

    BreyDiscovery of Heavy Hydrogen.

    olta-urrent electricity and electric *attery.

    Pioneers in Mechanical Inventions and Discoveries

    Austin8otor -ar.

    ell+ :raham$elephone.




    -a1tonPrinting Press.


    Daimler:as engine.

    Davy8iners )afety &amp.

    DieselInternal -om*ustion engine 5Diesel engine6.

    DunlopPneumatic tyre.

    3dison(irst electric *ul* and gramophone.

    (aradayDynamo.(ick&aw of Diffusion(icks &aw.

    (rank 4hittle,et propulsion.

    (ulton)tream *oat.


    :illette)afety raor.

    :utten*urgArt of Printing.

    Hoe"otary Printing Press.

    Howe)ewing 8achine.

    HuygensPendulum clock.

    ,ames 4att)team engine 5patented in @F6.

    &andstrom+ ,.3.)afety 8atches.

    8acmillanicycle 5@GJ>6.

  • 8/12/2019 Inventions and Discoveries in Physics and Chemistry


    8auser8againe of rifle.

    8ercator-elestial and a terrestrial glo*e.

    8ontgolfieralloon 5@GG=6

    Pascal-alculating 8achine.

    Puckle+ ,ames8achine gun



    )tephenson"ailway engine.

    )winton8ilitary tank.


    4att+ "o*ert 4atson"adar.

    4. K 9. 4right 54right rothers6Aeroplane 5@FL=6.

    4aterman(ountain pen.

    Meiss&enses; -amera.

    Pioneers in Medical Inventions and Discoveries

    antingInsulin 5as a palliative for dia*etes6.

    arnard+ -hristian"eplacing the human heart.

    rahmchari+ B.8.-ure of Cala#a#ar fever.

    DavyIsolation of metals *y electricity; studied properties of chlorine.

    Domagk)ulpha drugs as *actericides.

    3i'kman-ause of eri#eri.

    (insenDiscovered curative effect of ultra violet rays; photography.

    (leming+ Ale1anderPenicillin 5in @F>F6.

    Harvey-irculation of *lood.

    HahnemannHomoeopathy 5founder6.

    Hopkins+ (rederick :owlanditamin D.

    ,enner)mallpo1 accination.

    Coch$u*ercle acillus.


    &ister+ &ordAntiseptic treatment.

  • 8/12/2019 Inventions and Discoveries in Physics and Chemistry


    Pasteur+ &ouis$reatment of ra*ies; cure of hydropho*ia.

    "onald "oss8alaria Parasite.

    )alk+ ,onas 3.Anti#polio accine.

    )impson and Harrison-hloroform.