Inventions and discoveries by india

Download Inventions and discoveries by india

Post on 11-Jun-2015




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Inventions and discoveries by india


<ul><li> 1. Contents Zero (500 AD) Diamond Iron Working (1800 - 1200 BCE) Ink (4th century BCE) Ludo Buttons Sugar refinement Algebraic abbreviations Zinc Indigo Dye Muslin Shampoo Cashmere wool </li></ul> <p> 2. Zero (500 AD) Indians were the first to use the zero as a symbol and in arithmetic operations. In those earlier times a blank space was used to denote zero, later when it created confusion a dot was used to denote zero, in 500 AD circa Aryabhata again gave a new symbol for zero(0) with some new rules. 3. Diamond Diamonds were first recognized and mined in central India, where significant alluvial deposits of the stone could then be found along the rivers Penner, Krishna and Godavari. 4. Iron Working (1800 BCE1200 BCE) Use of Iron in making various utensils and weapons was first done by Indians and the whole world knows it. Iron working started in early Vedic period and the skill was then adopted by the world. 5. Ink (4th century BCE) The carbon black from which India ink is produced is obtained by burning bones, tar, pitch, and other substances. 6. Ludo Pachisi originated in India by the 6th century. The earliest evidence of this game in India is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta. This game was played by the Mughal emperors of India, a notable example being that of Akbar. 7. Buttons Buttons were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by 2000 BCE. Some buttons were carved into geometric shapes and had holes pierced into them so that they could be attached to clothing by using a thread. Ian McNeil (1990) holds that: "The button, in fact, was originally used more as an ornament than as a fastening, the earliest known being found at Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley. 8. Sugar Refinement Sugarcane was originally from tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Different species likely originated in different locations with S. barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. 9. Zinc was first smelted from zinc ore in India. Zinc mines of Zawar, near Udaipur, Rajasthan, were active during early Christian era. There are references of medicinal uses of zinc in the Charaka Samhita (300 BCE). Zinc 10. Indigo dye Indigo, a blue pigment and a dye, was used in India, which was also the earliest major center for its production and processing. The Indigofera tinctoria variety of Indigo was domesticated in India. 11. The fabric was named after the city where Europeans first encountered it, Mosul, in what is now Iraq, but the fabric actually originated from Dhaka in what is now Bangladesh. In the 9th century, an Arab merchant named Sulaiman makes note of the material's origin in Bengal (known as Ruhml in Arabic). Muslin 12. SHAMPOO The word shampoo in English is derived from Hindustani chmpo , and dates to 1762. The shampoo itself originated in the eastern regions of the Mughal Empire that ruled erstwhile India. 13. Cashmere wool The woolen shawls made from wool in Kashmir region of India find written mention between 3rd century BCE and the 11th century CE. 14. THANK YOU </p>