Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016

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<ul><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 1/13</p><p>Bioengineered Body Parts</p><p>On June 6th, a group of doctors at Duke University successfully implanted the first</p><p>bioengineered blood vessel into a live patient. Though bioengineering has been advancing</p><p>rapidly, this procedure was the first successful implant of any synthetically bioengineered bodypart.</p><p>mplanted into a patient suffering from the end stages of kidney disease, the vein had been</p><p>synthesi!ed from donated human cells that were then developed on a scaffold. n order to prevent</p><p>any antibodies in the patient from attacking the foreign vessel, the "ualities that could trigger theattack were removed. The vein has proved more successful in tests than synthetic or animal#</p><p>based implants because they are not prone to clotting and don$t pose risk of infection during thesurgery.</p><p>ncredibly, the veins are made of the same fle%ible materials that they$re connected to and eventake on the properties of their cellular environment and other veins. &amp;ith the success of this</p><p>procedure, this emerging field has huge implications for further uses in the medical world. 'oon,</p><p>doctors hope to be bioengineering veins for heart disease and maybe even go on to bioengineerwhole organs or body parts.</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 2/13</p><p>The Four-Quark Particle</p><p>The search for the e%planation of the birth of our universe is heating up after the June ()th</p><p>announcement of the confirmation of a particle that hasfour "uarks. &amp;hile this may not seemthat important, to physicists, the find has given rise to new e%planations and theories of how</p><p>matter was first created. *rior to this observation, the e%planation for the creation of matter was</p><p>limited since particles with only two or three "uarks had ever been found.</p><p>'cientists have called this new particle +c-//0, and they hypothesi!e that it was made in thefirst insanely hot seconds after the 1ig 1ang. 2ollowing some years of complicated math</p><p>e"uations from the 1a1ar collaboration at the '345 ational 4ccelerator 3aboratory affiliated</p><p>with 'tanford University0, scientists working at the 1ei7ing 8lectron#*ositron 5ollider 18*5ll0noticed this particle on a number of occasions. 1ecause scientists are nothing if not generous, the</p><p>results were shared with the folks at 589 and the :igh 8nergy 4ccelerator 9esearch</p><p>Organi!ation in Tsukuba, Japan. t was the Japanese scientists who were recently able to observeand isolate (; of the particles. 4s with most scientific breakthroughs, the particle was lacking</p><p>substantiation until scientists at the 1elle detector in 1ei7ing confirmed the isolation of -/&lt; more</p><p>particles.</p><p>'cientists claim that it took over (/ trillion trillion subatomic collisions in their detector, which istwice as big as the famous 3arge :adron 5ollider in 'wit!erland. 'ome physicists have voiced</p><p>criticism of the observation, claiming the particle is nothing more than two mesons two "uarked</p><p>particles0 bonded together. 9egardless, the knowledge of the particle$s e%istence is huge for the</p><p>world of physics and gives rise to a vast amount of ways the first pieces of matter could haveformed.</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 3/13</p><p>Sight For The Blind</p><p>The first bionic eye prototype was introduced by a team of 4ustralian</p><p>designers in early June. The bionic eye works by having a chipimplanted into the user$s skulland then connected to a digital camera in</p><p>the glasses. &amp;hile the glasses currently only allow the user to see</p><p>outlines, the prototype has a lot of promise to be improved upon in the</p><p>future. Once the camera captures an image, the signal is changed and</p><p>sent wirelessly to the microchip. 2rom there, the signal activates spots</p><p>on the microchip implanted into the visual corte% of the brain. The team</p><p>of researchers is hoping to further the capabilities of the glasses while</p><p>keeping them lightweight, ad7ustable, and comfortable for the wearer. tshould be usable by ); percent of people who are legally blind.</p><p>Immunity To Cancer</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 4/13</p><p>The University of 9ochester published a study on June (th suggesting the mechanism that</p><p>allows naked mole rats to be immune to cancer. These creepy subterranean rodents may get a lot</p><p>of heat for their looks, but they seem to be having the last laugh when it comes to their immunity</p><p>to cancer.</p><p>4 gooey sugar known as hyaluronan :40 has been found in the spaces between naked mole</p><p>rats$ cells, which seem to stop them from growing close together and forming tumors. The</p><p>substance, acting like a parent chaperone at a high school dance, causes early contact inhibition,which is a process that stops cells from multiplying once they reach a certain density. 4 double</p><p>mutation in the two en!ymes that promote :4$s growth and reduce its breakdown is thought to</p><p>be the reason for the elevated amount of the substance. 'cientists tested the theory by infecting</p><p>skin cells containing both high and low amounts of :4 with cancer.</p><p>t was found that in the cell with low levels of :4, the cancer multiplied rapidly, but in cells with</p><p>high :4, tumors failed to form. 'cientists are hoping to modify laboratory rats to produce high</p><p>amounts of :4 in an attempt to make mice immune to cancer.</p><p>Cardiac MRI</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 5/13</p><p>4nthracycline is an effective form of chemotherapy, but it has been shown to</p><p>severely damage the hearts of many children who undergo treatment. Up to now,most children suffering from this heart damage find their heart walls thinning and</p><p>by the time they are diagnosed it$s usually much too late to do anything about it.</p><p>Ultrasounds would fre"uently miss the heart defect until years following the</p><p>treatment, once the irreversible damage had already taken its toll.</p><p>1ut a new techni"ue was unveiled on June (/th. Through e%tensive testing,</p><p>the T( =9 has been shown to be more accurate, more efficient, and safer than</p><p>e%isting techni"ues used to detect heart disease in children. Doctors have been able</p><p>to see childhood heart defects earlier and more effectively than with the</p><p>ultrasounds which erroneously show the hearts to be perfectly fine0. This is a greatmedical advancement for detection of early childhood heart diseases.</p><p>Human embryonic stem cells cloned.</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 6/13</p><p>A scientist removes the nucleus from a human egg using a pipette. This is the first step to making personalized</p><p>embryonic stem cells.</p><p>PHOTOGRAPH COURTESY OF OHSU PHOTOS</p><p>4fter more than a decade of false starts, Oregon :ealth and 'cience University</p><p>researchers announced they had cloned human embryos and collected stem cells</p><p>from them. They also grew the cells into speciali!ed skin and heart cells, a first</p><p>step toward using them in transplant medicine.</p><p>The key to the team&gt;s success turned out to be the addition of caffeine to the</p><p>cloning process. ow researchers will seek to discover whether these cells or</p><p>similar ?induced? stem cells, made without embryos, will have the most medical</p><p>use.</p><p>CAN CREATE CST!M "EA#IN$ T%IN$S</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 7/13</p><p>&amp; M!RE P"ANETS IN T%E S!"AR S'STEM</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 8/13</p><p>NE( ANTIBI!TIC )ISC!#ERE)</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 9/13</p><p>NE( S!"AR S'STEM )ISC!#ERE) %A#IN$ SN-"I*E AN)EART%"I*E P"ANETS</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 10/13</p><p>P!SSIB"E CRE F!R BA")NESS</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 11/13</p><p>$ENETICA""' M!)IEFIE) BACTERIA</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 12/13</p><p>B"AC*%!"E )ISC!#ERE)</p></li><li><p>7/23/2019 Scientific Discoveries Innovations Inventions 2014-1016</p><p> 13/13</p></li></ul>