List of Inventions & Discoveries of India

Download List of Inventions & Discoveries of India

Post on 05-Apr-2018




0 download

Embed Size (px)


<ul><li><p>7/31/2019 List of Inventions &amp; Discoveries of India</p><p> 1/30</p><p>List of Indian inventions and discoveries by INDIA</p><p>This list of Indian inventions and discoveries details the inventions, scientific discoveries and contributions of India,</p><p>including both the ancient and Modern India.</p><p>Architecture</p><p>Astronomy</p><p>Agricultural science</p><p>Ayurveda Medicines, Treatment of Deases, Plastics Surgery</p><p>Biology</p><p>Botany</p><p>Chemistry</p><p>Physics</p><p>Mathematics - Algebra Calculus Combinatorics</p><p>Geometry - Logic Probability Statistics Trigonometry</p><p>Geology</p><p>Geophysics</p><p>GeographyMineralogy</p><p>Cartography</p><p>Technology</p><p>Social Science</p><p>===============</p><p>Economics</p><p>Social sciences</p><p>Psychology</p><p>Political science</p><p>In Modern Time we have developed</p><p>Automobile Engineering,</p><p>Information Technology,</p><p>Communications</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 List of Inventions &amp; Discoveries of India</p><p> 2/30</p><p>Knowing its knowledge</p><p>Creation Time </p><p>Calendar </p><p>Astronomy </p><p>Om - its meaning and significance Evolution </p><p>Ayurveda </p><p>Viccithra Janana - Unusual Birth </p><p>Vimana - Ancient flying machine </p><p>Metallurgy </p><p>Chemistry - Rasayana </p><p>Geography - Bhusastra </p><p>Architecture </p><p>Mathematics </p><p>Warfare Engineering and Technology </p><p>CREATION</p><p>"An effort to understand the origins of this magnificient creation. An absolutely incrediblejourney to an event that no human or Go has had the opportunity to see."</p><p>The urge to understand as to how this universe was created has been there for man from the verybeginning. Modern science has been asking this question as to how this Universe was created andhave tried to understand it in a scientific manner in the last couple of 100 years. Various civilisations</p><p>the worldover have also asked this question and given answers in their own story form.</p><p>The Indian scientific text the Veda and its other related texts like the Upanishad and other texts havenot only asked this question about creation but have also given detailed and scientific answers to thesame.</p><p>In this subject capsule we look at these questions and their answers as given in the Indian texts. It isindeed amazing to know that the understanding of creation is not mentioned in passing in the Indiantexts, but is in fact, discussed in great detail. The concepts of creation is discussed in a whole rangeof texts like the</p><p> Veda - 3100 BCE Upanishad - 3000 BCE 18 Purana Manu Smrithi Brhath Samhita - 5th century Samarangana Sutradara - 10th century</p><p>From the above list we can see that the discussion on creation in India has not been a one off effortbut has been discussed regularly and repeatedly over the millennia and over the centuries. Some ofthe concepts used to discuss this creation are</p><p> Nasadaya,</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 List of Inventions &amp; Discoveries of India</p><p> 3/30</p><p> Hiranya Garbha, Indra-Vrtra, Padmanabha, Om, the primordial sound, Lingam, the column of flame, Why lotus is used in the creation imagery, Panchabutha, the 5 step of creation from the subtle to gross, 108 - reasoning - sumuham, equilibrium required for creation to take place Narayana</p><p>All these concepts, which are expressions of different aspects of creation, are discussed here, from ascientific perspective.</p><p>This subject capsule brings clearly to our understanding that the questioning and awareness of howthe creation took place is not a new phenomena in modern science. The Indian Rishiscientists haverepeatedly asked this question and looked for credible answers over 5000 years back itself.</p><p>These questions and answers as found in the Indian texts can now be confidently looked at today,understood in modern scientific parlance and more importantly used in the latest scientific researchto understand how creation took place.</p><p>TIME</p><p>"To understand an abstract concept in simple terms."</p><p>The concept of Time is unique to India.</p><p>While the West could think of time from an antiquity 6000 years to 6 Million years that too only in thelast couple of hundred years, India has had a concept of thousands of Yuga and Kalpa running into</p><p>crores and crores of years.</p><p>We frequently come across the terms Yuga, Kali yuga, Dwapara yuga, Treta yuga, and Krita yugacollectively called Chathur yuga leading on to Manvantra, Kalpa, Brahma dina, Brahma masa,Brahma varsha and finally Parardha.</p><p>The Time span associated with each of the above terminologies is huge, mind boggling and henceseem confounding.</p><p>In this capsule an effort is made to understand them not a just abstract figures of enormous timespan but as astronomical events and their measure which these terminologies and their time spanactually denote.</p><p>1. The calculation of Yuga which is an alignment of all the planets of the solar system inconjunction with the star Ashwini in the mesham Aries constellation.</p><p>2. The time span of each yuga</p><p>Kali yuga 4,32,000</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 List of Inventions &amp; Discoveries of India</p><p> 4/30</p><p>Dwapara yuga 8,64,000</p><p>Treta yuga 12,96,000</p><p>Krita yuga 17,28,000</p><p>----------</p><p>Chathur Yuga 43,20,000</p><p>----------</p><p>From the above, it is clear that 4,32,000 is 1 Unit of Time.</p><p>What is the sanctity, more importantly the scientific reasoning behind this 1 unit of time being4,32,000 earth years.</p><p>1. Manvantra -14 of them in number, their names.</p><p>This is the time taken for the sun to complete its revolution around the center of its galaxy.</p><p>2. Kalpa - 30 of them in number, their names.</p><p>One Kalpa is the life span of our Sun Surya</p><p>One Kalpa is also the time taken for one complete revolution of the farthest star in our galaxy.</p><p>3. Similarly, the understanding of Brahma Dina, Brahma Masa, Brahma Varsha and Parardha asastronomical events.</p><p>How is it possible for Brahma to have such large earth years, as their day, month, year andlife span? This intrigue is explained with visuals, as to how our ancients understood thevariable concept of Time in space, in different loka, namely other inhabited worlds of theuniverse.</p><p>4. The concept of Pancha mandala and its astronomical significance.o Chandra mandalao Prithvi mandalao Surya mandalao Paramesthi mandalao Swayambhuva mandala</p><p>Scientific explanation of the same which is corroborated by modern astronomical research is</p><p>discussed with visual details.</p><p>5. Dailysankalpais the concept of time keeping, from a cosmic calender to a geo- calendar.</p><p>In all, the scientific nature of time as understood and practiced even today by Indians, can beseen and appreciated visually.</p><p>Where did they get this knowledge of time?</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 List of Inventions &amp; Discoveries of India</p><p> 5/30</p><p>Our ancients concept of time and the modern concepts of time and space seem to match wellnot just with the calculation of elapsed time, but also the concepts of measurements viz a vizspace and its evolution</p><p>Kali the goddess, Shakthi is shown as dancing on or along with Shiva who is also called asMaha Kaleshwar. Kali is refered to as the energy of time. Taking this view further,being amazed at the specific astronomical knowledge and the movements of astral bodieswhich were measured in the form of Time, could there a 4th dimension which has lead to thisknowledge.</p><p>Kali - the energy of time could well represent this 4th dimenstion.</p><p>CALENDAR</p><p>"Perhaps controversial to start with but futuristic in approach"</p><p>In this subject capsule, we question the scientific nature of the Gregorian calendar that we arefollowing now.</p><p>Similar to this, there are a variety of calendars being used in different parts of the world.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 List of Inventions &amp; Discoveries of India</p><p> 6/30</p><p>Almost all these calendars have their origins to a particular earthly event or the birth of a Divine orNoble person.</p><p>With this civilization and the world going scientific, can we depend on a medieval calendar in thefuture?</p><p>We are on the verge of entering the space age.</p><p>Can any of these present calendars be used in the coming space age as a space age calendar?</p><p>In this subject capsule, we offer the Indian Sankalpa calendar, as a credible alternative for this worldas it enters the scientific age and in space age usage.</p><p>ASTRONOMY</p><p>The knowledge of astronomy is one field that India has excelled in.</p><p>Dirghatama is considered to be the Ist Astronomer/ observer as per Indian tradition.</p><p>The word for astronomy in the Indian text isJyotisha. The termJyotisha is also used to indicateastrology. The termJyotisha is drawn from the samskrit wordJothito mean a luminous body.</p><p>Astrology Vs Astronomy:</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 List of Inventions &amp; Discoveries of India</p><p> 7/30</p><p>Astrology is a predictive area of the work dealing only with the zodiac belt of the stars and the transitof the sun, moon and the five planets namely Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn within thisbelt and its probable impact on the mankind on this earth.</p><p>In contrast to this, astronomy deals with the whole sky and not just the zodiac belt.</p><p>There is nothing predictive in astronomy, it is clearly an observational science.</p><p>Scientific Indian astronomy:</p><p>The scientific aspects of IndianJyotisha or astronomy are discussed in this subject capsule under theheadings:</p><p> Geocentric view? Navagraha Scientific naming Comets Eclipse Parallax Distance</p><p> Horizon Measurement Ashtami/Navami</p><p>Indian astronomy - Geocentric ?</p><p>As astronomy is a traditional observational science of India, there are scientific aspects to it. Being afield of observation, the Indians from very early days have not looked at this universe from ageocentric point of view but have in fact understood the heliocentric nature of solar system and havementioned it in the Rig Veda, as well in the Markendeya Purana among the other texts.</p><p>While the solar system is heliocentric, the galaxies and the universe had each their central points,</p><p>was also well understood and brought forth in the Indian astronomy.</p><p>Scientific naming:</p><p>Given this depth of understanding, every aspect of the sky in Indian astronomy be it the moon, thefull moon, the new moon, the eclipses, the planets and most of the stars in the firmament have allhave a scientific basis for their naming.</p><p>Legends in Indian astronomy:</p><p>There are many Indian legends in the field of astronomy. These legends by themselves are nice</p><p>moral stories. What is to be understood in them is the scientific aspects of the observation of the skythrough the centuries which have been beautifully embedded in the stories. These are expressed inthe various Purana of the land. These are meant for the common man and have been passed fromgeneration to generation.</p><p>All the same, these legends are also meant for the astronomer to cull out the data of theastronomical observations and use them for furthering the research in the field of astronomy.</p><p>Prominent astronomers:</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 List of Inventions &amp; Discoveries of India</p><p> 8/30</p><p>This land of India have been fortunate to have through the centuries and millennia a great number oforiginal observational astronomers.</p><p>Some of the prominent astronomers of India have been:</p><p> Aryabhatta</p><p> Agasthya Viswamitra Lalla Varahamihira Bhaskara I Baskaracharya Varahamihira</p><p>and other medieval astronomers are discussed in specific with visual details.</p><p>Indian astronomy for the future:</p><p>All of these above astronomers along with a countless number of others have created a huge mass ofastronomical data to be used by us for now and for the future generations to come. India is the onlycountry today which has a record of continuous astronomical observations of well over 7000 yearsand more.</p><p>As the world is now going into an astronomical era this knowledge compilation should come in handyto the cosmologists for a better, wholistic understanding of astronomy and cosmology.</p><p>==============================================================================================</p><p>OM - its meaning and significance</p><p>OM is a symbol, syllable that now has come to denote, Hindu religion.</p><p>A popular poster of OM statesOM has over a 100 meanings and one of them is Welcome to Gods.</p><p>In this capsule we look at the meaning and scientific significance of OM and how it has journeyedthrough the World over the millennia.</p><p>In the Indian thought, OM has been expressed as the primordial sound. It is echo of the soundreverberating in the universe, which originally occurred when this universe began.</p><p>In its journey through the world, this same OM has been adopted by the local civilizations variouslyas</p><p> Amun in the Egypitian civilization, Amen in the Roman civilization, Ameen in the Arabic civilization</p><p>The original of this expression, its meaning and its significant is the same world over.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 List of Inventions &amp; Discoveries of India</p><p> 9/30</p><p>A couple of decades back, 2 modern Physicists have been awarded the Noble prize for identifying thisecho of the Big Bang.</p><p>Our ancient Indian Rishi- Seer Scientists had with their intuitive knowledge then, identified thisprimordial sound OM understood its meaning, its significance, its origin and its ever lasting allpervading nature.</p><p>We need to appreciate the Indian thinkers for their deep insight into the origin of OM.</p><p>With this understanding, we can realize that OM is not just a symbol of one particular religious faith,but has its scientific ramifications not just on this earth but also all through the universe.</p><p>==============================================================================================</p><p>EVOLUTION</p><p>When we talk ofevolution, the first thought that comes to our mind is, as to how man has evolvedfrom the monkey. A person with a deeper insight would to think of, as to how life evolved on earthfrom a single cell organism to what we are today.</p><p>In the Indian knowledge system this evolution process is called Parinama or change. While in thewestern sciences evolution is a linear upwardly inclined movement of life. In the Indianthought, Parinama is a cycle of creation, evolution, sustenance, to destruction of life, world anduniverse for re-creation once again.</p><p>This Parinama is from the very moment of the creation of the universe i.e from the Big Bang of theuniverse to the dissolution of the universe by its retracting back into its primordial cosmic egg formcalled in the Indian texts as Hiranyagarba the Golden Womb.</p><p>In this subject capsule, we look at the Indian concept ofParinama from the Vedic and Puranic texts.We look at the the origin of life on earth and its evolution through the Dasavatara concept of</p><p>Vishnu. The very wordAvatara in the Samskritlanguage means, to come down or to descend.</p><p>The Dasavatara concept of Vishnu which h...</p></li></ul>