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Human Anatomy & Physiology Cardiovascular System Lymphatic System Respiratory System Digestive System

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Human Anatomy & Physiology. Cardiovascular System Lymphatic System Respiratory System Digestive System. Cardiovascular System. Layers of heart wall Pericardium Parietal Visceral Epicardium Myocardium Endocardium Heart valves . Basically 2 pumps Right Pulmonary circulation Left - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Human Anatomy & Physiology

Cardiovascular System

Lymphatic System

Respiratory System

Digestive System

Page 2: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Cardiovascular System

• Layers of heart wall– Pericardium

• Parietal• Visceral

– Epicardium

– Myocardium

– Endocardium • Heart valves

Page 3: Human Anatomy & Physiology

• Basically 2 pumps– Right

• Pulmonary circulation

– Left• Systemic circulation

Page 4: Human Anatomy & Physiology

• Heart Chambers & vessels– Right atrium

• Superior vena cava• Inferior vena cava

– Right Ventricle• Pulmonary artery

– Left atrium• Pulmonary veins (2)

– Left Ventricle• Aorta

Page 5: Human Anatomy & Physiology

• Heart Valves– Semilunar

• Outflow valves• Pulmonary• Aortic

– Atrioventricular• Strong • Tricuspid• Bicuspid

– Mitral

Page 6: Human Anatomy & Physiology

• Coronary circulation– First branch off aorta– Left

• Anterior descending• Circumflex

– Right

Page 7: Human Anatomy & Physiology

• Conduction pathway

– SA node• Pacemaker

– AV node– Bundle of His– Left & Right bundle

branches– Purkinje fibers

Page 8: Human Anatomy & Physiology

CardiacCardiac cyclecycle

Page 9: Human Anatomy & Physiology

• Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Page 10: Human Anatomy & Physiology

• Blood Vessels• Arteries

– distribution of nutrients– maintenance of blood pressure

• Veins– takes waste products back to

heart for circulation & disposal– valves keep flow going in one

direction• Capillaries

– where internal respiration occurs

» i.e. the exchange of O2 & CO2 between vessel & cell

– where exchanges occur for nutrients, wastes, and fluids

Page 11: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Blood CompositionBlood Composition• Blood = Plasma (55%) + Formed Elements (45%)

– Plasma = the liquid faction of blood; blood minus its formed element – Serum = plasma minus clotting factors

Page 12: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Pathology (diseases)

• Anemia• Hemophilia• Leukemia • Phlebitis• Varicose veins• Aneurysm• Arteriosclerosis• Atherosclerosis • Thrombus & embolus• Hypertension • Congestive heart failure• Coronary artery disease

– Angina– Myocardial infarction

Page 13: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Lymphatic System• Structures

– Lymph– Lymphatic vessels

• Lacteals – Lymph nodes

• Tonsils• Peyer’s patches

– Thymus– Spleen– Thoracic duct – Lymphocytes

• B lymphocytes• T lymphocytes

• Functions– Immunity (defense)– Remove excess fluids

Page 14: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Capillary exchange: Filtration and osmosis

Page 15: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Respiratory System• Structures

– Upper respiratory tract• Nose• Pharynx• Larynx

– Lower respiratory tract• Trachea• Bronchi• Bronchioles• Alveoli • Lungs

– Left = 2lobes– Right = 3 lobes

• Pleura– Parietal– Visceral

• Functions – Ventilation– Respiration

Page 16: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Respiration: External

&Internal

Page 17: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Lung expansion and collapse

Page 18: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Pathology of Respiratory System• Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

• Asthma• Emphysema• Chronic bronchitis (bronchiectasis)

• Lung cancer• Pneumonia • Pleurisy • Tuberculosis (see next slide)

Page 19: Human Anatomy & Physiology
Page 20: Human Anatomy & Physiology

• 3 accessory organs – Liver– Gallbladder – Pancreas

Digestive System• Structures

– Mouth• Salivary glands

– Pharynx– Esophagus– Stomach– Small intestine

• Duodenum • Jejunum• Ileum

– Large intestine• Cecum (appendix)• Ascending colon• Transverse colon• Descending colon• Sigmoid colon• Rectum• Anus

Page 21: Human Anatomy & Physiology

• Functions– Ingestion– Digestion– Absorption

• Villi • Capillaries• Lacteals

– Elimination

• “busiest” area – Duodenum

Page 22: Human Anatomy & Physiology

• Intestinal wall & absorption

– Folds of mucous membrane– Rugae– Plicae

– Villi

– Microvilli

Page 23: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Pathology of the Digestive System

• Peptic ulcers• Gastroenteritis • Peritonitis• Hepatitis• Cirrhosis • Gallstones• Pancreatitis • Hernia

– Diaphragmatic – Umbilical– Inguinal

• Diverticulitis• Ulcerative colitis • Colon cancer

Page 24: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis in sigmoid colon

Page 25: Human Anatomy & Physiology

Hernias; Gallstones; Cancer