anatomy & physiology: human organism

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This is Chapter 1 of Human Anatomy & Physiology about Human as an organism

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  • Anatomy & Physiology

    Prof. Neriza G. Mamasabulod

  • COURSE OBJECTIVESENABLE THE STUDENT TO ACQUIRE BASIC KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND SKILLS RELATED TO THE NORMAL FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY WHICH HE CAN USE IN HIS FUTURE RESPONSIBILITIES.

  • A N A T O M YAnatomy- is derived from the greek terms ANA meaning up & TOME meaning cutting w/c literally means cutting up.

  • AnatomyIs the scientific discipline that investigates the structure of the body. It means to dissect or cut apart and separate, the parts of the body for study.The study of shape & structure of the body & its parts.

  • CONTENTSTHE HUMAN ORGANISMCHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFETISSUES,GLANDS, & MEMBRANESINTEGUMENTARY SYSTEMSKELETAL SYSTEMDIGESTIVE SYSTEMNUTRITION, METABOLISM,BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATIONMUSCULAR SYSTEMNERVOUS SYSTEMSENSESENDOCRINE SYSTEMBLOODHEARTLYMPHATIC SYSTEM & IMMUNITYRESPIRATORY SYSTEMURINARY SYSTEM AND FLUID BALANCEREPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

  • Covers a Wide Range of StudiesStructure of body partsMicroscopic organization and processes by which they developExamines the relationship between structure and function making it easy to understand anatomy

  • CHAPTER 1Introduction to the Human Body

    This chapter introduces and emphasizes the important relationship between structure (anatomy) and function (physiology), integrating the six levels of organization and their characteristics. The body plan and basic anatomical terminology are presented with directional terms, planes of section and general body regions. The major trunk cavities and the serous membranes associated with each are presented. The concept of homeostasis described and negative-feedback mechanisms are stressed as the normal means for maintaining homeostasis. The relationship between structure and function and the concept of homeostasis can be powerful organizing themes for an entire course.

  • PhysiologyScientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living things. The study of functions of the body parts & conditions w/c determine their functions in the living being.

  • Major Goals of Physiology areTo understand and predict the bodys responses.Understand how the body maintains conditions within the narrow range of values in the presence of a continually changing environment.

  • STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION

    Six structural levels:Chemical levelCell level Tissue levelOrgan levelOrgan system levelOrganism level

  • Relationships of the Different LevelsInteraction of atoms (Chemical Level) forming into Molecules, the molecules structure of whichRelated to its functions etcEach level is a foundation to the next

  • Fig. 1.1

  • Organs

    of

    the Body

  • Organ Systems of the Body

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFEOrganization- condition in w/c the parts of an organism have scientific relation to each other.Metabolism- ability to use energy to perform vital functions.Responsiveness- sense changes in the environment & make adjustments to maintain life.Growth- increase in size of all parts of the body.Development- changes an organism undergoes through time; fertilization & ends at death.Reproduction- formation of new cells or new organism.

  • HomeostasisHomeo = the same + stasis = standingIt means the existence and maintenance of arelatively constant environment within the body.Variables: are conditions like temperature, volume, and chemical content whose values change.

  • HOMEOSTASIS

  • Negative Feedback Mechanismw/c fx to maintain homeostasis.Any deviation from set point is made smaller or resisted.Does not prevent variation but maintain variation w/in a normal range.Ex. Maintenance of normal BP

  • Positive Feedback MechanismNot homeostatic & are rare in healthy individuals.Deviation from normal value occurs, the response of the system is to make the deviation even greater.Usually creates a cycle leading away from homeostasis & in some cases results in death.

  • Example of Negative-Feedback

  • EXAMPLE OF HARMFUL POSITIVE FEEDBACK

  • Terminology and the Body PlanEtymology- origin of new words from Latin or Greek which is descriptive in the original languages.

    Prefix or suffix modifies the meaning of the word

  • Directional TermsRefer to the body in the anatomical position, regardless of its actual position.Anatomical position refers to a person standing erect with feet forward, arms hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.These are used to describe the position of structures in relation to other structures or body parts.

  • Fig. 1.7 Directional Terms

  • Table. 1.1

  • Planes= imaginary flat surfacesa sagittal plane divides the body into L and R parts, a transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts, and a frontal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

  • PlanesA longitudinal section divides an organ along its long axis, a transverse section cuts an organ at a right angle to the long axis, and an oblique section cuts across the long axis at an angle other than a right angle.

  • Planes of Section of the Body

  • Planes of section Through an Organ

  • Body Parts and RegionsArmForearmThighLegHeadNeck TrunkThoraxAbdomenPelvisQuadrantsRegions

  • Body Parts & Regions Anterior View

  • Body Parts & Regions Posterior View

  • Subdivisions of the AbdomenABDOMINAL QUADRANTS

  • Subdivisions of the Abdomen

    (a) Abdominal Quadrants (b) Abdominal Regions

  • Serous MembranesSecrete fluid that fills the space bet. the parietal and visceral membranes protect organs from friction.Pericardial membrane-surrounds the heart.Peritoneal membranes lines the abdominopelvicMesenteries parts of peritoneum holding abdominal organs in place and provide a passageway for blood vessels and nerves to organs.Retroperitoneal

  • Body CavitiesTrunk cavitiesThoracic cavity Abdominal cavityMediastinum

    The thoracic cavity is bounded by the ribs and the diaphragm. The abdominal cavity is bounded by diaphragm and the abdominal muscles.The pelvic cavity is surrounded by the pelvic bones.

  • Trunk Cavities

  • Serous MembranesLine the trunk cavities & cover the organs. The cavity or space is normally filled with lubricating film of serous fluid to prevent rubbing or organs against each other thus preventing damage.Visceral- the wall in contact with the organs.Parietal- the outer part of the space.

  • Indicates cross section (b) Interior view of the section through balloon

  • Location of Serous Membranes (a) parietal pericardium (blue) (b) parietal pleural (blue), visceral pleural (red) (c) parietal peritoneum (blue), visceral peritoneum (red) & mesenteries (purple)

  • MesenteriesAre part of the peritoneum that hold the abdominal organs in place and provide a passage way for blood vessels and nerves to organsRetro peritoneal organs are found behind the parietal peritoneum. The kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas parts of the intestines & the urinary bladder are examples of retroperitoneal organs.

  • Thank you !!!

    **This chapter introduces and emphasizes the important relationship between structure (anatomy) and function (physiology), integrating the six levels of organization and their characteristics. The body plan and basic anatomical terminology are presented with directional terms, planes of section and general body regions. The major trunk cavities and the serous membranes associated with each are presented. The concept of homeostasis described and negative-feedback mechanisms are stressed as the normal means for maintaining homeostasis. The relationship between structure and function and the concept of homeostasis can be powerful organizing themes for an entire course.

    This chapter introduces and emphasizes the important relationship between structure (anatomy) and function (physiology), integrating the six levels of organization and their characteristics. The body plan and basic anatomical terminology are presented with directional terms, planes of section and general body regions. The major trunk cavities and the serous membranes associated with each are presented. The concept of homeostasis described and negative-feedback mechanisms are stressed as the normal means for maintaining homeostasis. The relationship between structure and function and the concept of homeostasis can be powerful organizing themes for an entire course.

    This chapter introduces and emphasizes the important relationship between structure (anatomy) and function (physiology), integrating the six levels of organization and their characteristics. The body plan and basic anatomical terminology are presented with directional terms, planes of section and general body regions. The major trunk cavities and the serous membranes associated with each are presented. The concept of homeostasis described and negative-feedback mechanisms are stressed as the normal means for maintaining homeostasis. The relationship between structure and function and the concept of homeostasis can be powerful organizing themes for an entire course.

    *Body can be studied at seven structural levels: chemical organelle, cell tissue organ organ system and organism*Hom is the maintenance of a variable, such as body temperature, around an ideal normal value, ors et point. The value of the variable fluctuates around the set point, establishing a normal range of values.*A large decrease in blood pressure causes decreased blood flow to the heart. The heart is unable to pump enough blood to maintain blood pressure or adequate blood flow to the heart muscle. Thus, the ability of the heart to pump decreases further, and blood decreases even more.