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BIOL 2020. HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II. Dr. Tyler Evans Email: [email protected] Office: S Sci 350 Office Hours: Thu 8:30-11:30 or by appointment Website: http ://evanslabcsueb.weebly.com / Phone: 510-885-3475. TODAY’S SCHEDULE. Course Description Cells and Tissues. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY IIBIOL 2020Dr. Tyler EvansEmail: [email protected]: S Sci 350Office Hours: Thu 8:30-11:30 or by appointmentWebsite: http://evanslabcsueb.weebly.com/Phone: 510-885-3475TODAYS SCHEDULECourse Description

Cells and Tissuesthe primary goal of this course is to give you an understanding of anatomy and physiology that will be valuable to you, not only in attaining your career objectives but also in understanding processes that govern your daily life.LEARNING OUTCOMES(What I hope you will gain from this course)

LECTURESlectures will be presented using Powerpoint.

each lecture will be posted on Blackboard prior to class (almost always the evening before).

it is important to realize that my Powerpoint slides do not represent all material required for the exams. Important information that will be covered in exams will be added to each lecture.

thus attending class and taking thorough notes is the key to success. TEXTBOOK AND READINGSthe primary source of information for this course will be the lectures

the textbook will be used mainly to illustrate or clarify materials presented during lectures

however, specific reading assignments may be given throughout the course. you will be notified of reading assignments and if that reading assignment will be covered on the exam LECTURESTEXTBOOKHuman Anatomy and Physiology(9th edition) by Elaine N MariebKatja Hoehn

LABSyou will be performing laboratory exercises designed to help you understand certain fundamental physiological principles.

lab materials will be posted on Blackboard each week

your attendance in lab each week is mandatory

any unexcused absence from a lab will result in 0 credit for the missed lab.

you are required to stay for the entire lab session, or until excused by the instructor.

you will check out with your lab instructor, showing you have met the lab learning objectives and your lab space has been returned to its original condition.GRADINGMidterm Exam #1..25% (Aug 8)Midterm Exam #2..25% (Aug 22)Final Exam..25% (Sept 4)

Lab Component....25% (Weekly Jul 29-Aug 28)Your final grade will be determined by three exams and the laboratory component:exams will focus on lecture materialsYou must pass (>50%) at least one exam to pass the courseCOURSE POLICIES(in accordance with CSUEB guidelines)Academic Dishonestyplease review CSUEBs policies and understand what is considered academic dishonesty: http://www20.csueastbay.edu/academic/academic-policies/academic-dishonesty.htmlMissed Examsmake every effort to avoid missing scheduled exams. In case of an emergency or legitimate conflict, you may be eligible to take a specially scheduled make-up exam. However, you must provide verifiable, written documentation for your absence. Any unexcused absence from an exam will result in a score of 0 for that exam. Special Academic Accommodations: if you have a documented disability, accommodations can be arranged for exams and other activities. For more information please visit: http://www20.csueastbay.edu/af/departments/as/ Courtesy: Please turn off all audible sounds to any electronic devices (phones, PDAs, etc.) while in lecture and refrain from using your laptops for activities not related to lecture during class timeUse of these items is strictly prohibited during all exams, unless special accommodations have been arranged. KEYS TO SUCCESS IN BIOL 2020this course occurs at twice the speed of a course taken during the regular academic yearfor this reason, the time commitment required to receive a good grade in this course is highDO NOT GET BEHIND: you need to be committed and diligent about reviewing the material covered in lecture

Attend all the lecturesPrepare and take thorough notesStudy those notesAsk questions! And come see me!QUESTIONS?CELLS: THE LIVING UNITScells are the structural units of all living things and the smallest living unitthe importance of cells is described by four concepts collectively known as CELL THEORY:A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. When you define cell properties, you also define the properties of life

The activity of an organism depends on both the individual and the collective activities of its cells

The biochemical activities of cells are determined by their form and relative number of subcellular structures

Continuity on life from one generation to the next has a cellular basisCHAPTER 3CELLS: THE LIVING UNITSthe human body is composed of trillions of cells that vary greatly in shape, size and function.

Fig 3.1 pg 62flat tile-like epithelial cells line the inside of your cheeks and fit tightly together to protect underlying tissues from bacteria

red blood cells are found in the blood and are disc-shaped, allowing these cells to shrink are expand without rupturing

motile cells, such as sperm, have been modified to allow for movementCELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONCELLS: THE LIVING UNITSregardless of cell type, most cells share the same basic structure a generalized or COMPOSITE CELL has three main parts:PLASMA MEMBRANE: the outer boundary of the cell

CYTOPLASM: the intracellular fluid packed with ORGANELLES, small structures that perform specific functions

NUCLEUS: an organelle that coordinates cellular activities.the nucleus is typically near the cells center

Fig 3.2 pg 63CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONCELLS: THE LIVING UNITSPLASMA MEMBRANE: the outer boundary of the cell that separates the two major fluid compartments: INTRACELLULAR (inside of cells) and EXTRACELLULAR (outside of cells)the plasma membrane is not a passive envelope, instead its structure is described by the FLUID MOSAIC MODEL

the membrane is composed of a double layer of lipids (the LIPID BILAYER), in which proteins are inserted

protein components are constantly changing, hence the term fluid mosaicFig 3.3 pg 64PLASMA MEMBRANECELLS: THE LIVING UNITSmembrane proteins make up about 50% of the mass of the plasma membrane and are responsible for most specialized membrane functionsthere are two distinct populations of membrane proteinsINTEGRAL PROTEINS: which are firmly inserted into the lipid bilayermost are TRANSMEMBRANE proteins, meaning they span the entire length of the membrane and protrude on either sidee.g. proteins involved in transport, like ion channelsfig 3.4a pg. 66

2. PERIPHERAL PROTEINS: are loosely attached and easily removed without disrupting the membranee.g. proteins involved in supporting the cell, such as those of the cytoskeletonfig 3.4c pg. 66

PLASMA MEMBRANECELLS: THE LIVING UNITSmembrane proteins play a key role in regulating membrane trafficour cells are bathed in EXTRACELLULAR FLUID that contains proteins, sugars, ions, fats, etc., and there is constant exchange of these substances across the membranesubstances move through the plasma membrane in two ways:PASSIVELY: does not require energyACTIVELY: does require energy1. PASSIVE PROCESSES: molecules move from an area where they are in high concentration to areas where they are in lower concentration, that is down or along their concentration gradient

timetimeFig 3.6 pg 68PLASMA MEMBRANEe.g. DIFFUSIONCELLS: THE LIVING UNITS1. PASSIVE PROCESSESsame principle applies to substances moving across cell membranesDIFFUSION across cell membranes can occur with or without the assistance of membrane proteins

Fig 3.7 pg 69PLASMA MEMBRANECELLS: THE LIVING UNITS2. ACTIVE PROCESSESrefers to the use of energy to move substances across membranesoccurs when substance is not able to dissolve in the lipid bilayer, is too large to pass through channels or must be transported against its concentration gradientactive processes use ATP to change the shape of a transporter protein, such that molecule bound to the transport protein is moved from one side of the membrane to the other.

e.g. Sodium-Potassium ATPase (Na+, K+ ATPase)concentration of K+ is 10X higher in cells than outside and reverse for Na+,

K+ and Na+ slowly leak out of cells by diffusion, so cells actively transport K+ into cells and Na+ out of cells to maintain this gradientPLASMA MEMBRANECELLS: THE LIVING UNITSWhy would cells invest energy (ATP) to make sure more K+ is inside cells than outside and more Na+ outside cells than inside?

PLASMA MEMBRANECELLS: THE LIVING UNITSCELL JUNCTIONSthough certain cell types occur independently (e.g. blood cells) many other group together into tight communities

three ways in which cells can adhere to one another:TIGHT JUNCTION: a series of integral proteins in the plasma membranes of adjacent cells fuse together. e.g. tight junctions in the digestive track prevent digestive enzymes from seeping into the blood stream

DESMOSOME: mechanical couplings that adjoin parts of adjacent cell membranes using proteins called CADHERINS

GAP JUNCTION: a communicating junction between cells. Adjacent cells are connected by hollow tubes CONNEXONSCELLS: THE LIVING UNITSCELL JUNCTIONS

TIGHT JUNCTIONDESMOSOMEGAP JUNCTIONFig 3.5 pg 67these cell junctions allows cells to work together to accomplish specific tasks

TISSUES: are groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related functionfour primary tissue types are found throughout the body:

EPITHELIAL (think covers)CONNECTIVE (think supports)NERVOUS (think controls)MUSCLE (think moves)TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICCHAPTER 4pg 116tissues are organized into ORGANS and most organs contain all four tissue typesTISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEEPITHELIAL TISSUE or an EPITHELIUM is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity and forms boundaries between different environmentse.g. form the outer layer of the skin and line the digestive, urogenital and respiratory systemsepithelial tissues have five special characteristics:1. POLARITY-epithelium have an APICAL SURFACE that is exposed to the external environment or internal cavity and a BASAL SURFACE facing other cellsbecause the structure and function of apical and basal surfaces differ, epithelium are said to have APICAL-BASAL POLARITY

Fig 4.2 pg 119TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEepithelial tissues have five special characteristics:2. SPECILAZED CONTACTS: epithelial cells fit tightly together to form a continuous sheetWHAT STRUCTURES WOULD ALLOW CELLS TO BECOME CONNECTED TO FORM TIGHT AND CONTINUOUS SHEETS?TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEepithelial tissues have five special characteristics:

3. SUPPORTED BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE: all epithelial sheets rest upon and are supported by connective tissuea layer of connective tissue called the BASEMENT MEMBRANE forms along the basal surface of the epitheliumthis tissue is rich in the protein COLLAGEN, which helps prevent the epithelium from stretching and tearing

Basement membraneTISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEepithelial tissues have five special characteristics:

4. AVASCULAR BUT INNERVATED: epithelium contains no blood vessels (i.e. is avascular) but is supplied by nerve fibers (i.e. is innervated)receive nutrients via diffusion from vessels supplying the basement membrane

5. REGENERATION: epithelium have a high regenerative capacity and divide rapidlye.g. skin cells are continually shed and replaced by new ones

TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEdifferent types of epithelium are classified based on two criteriathe number of cells layers presentThe shape of its cellsNUMBER OF CELL LAYERSSIMPLE EPITHELIA consist of a single cell layer and are typically found where absorption, secretion and filtration occurSTRATIFIED EPITHELIA are composed of two or more layers stacked on top of each other and are common in high abrasion areas like the skin and mouth

Fig 4.2a pg 119TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEdifferent types of epithelium are classified based on two criteriathe number of cells layers presentthe shape of its cellsSHAPE OF CELLS

Fig 4.2b pg 119SQUAMOUS CELLS are flattened and scale-like

CUBOIDAL CELLS are box-like

COLUMNAR CELLS are tall and narrowTISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEdifferent combinations of cell layers and cell shapes give epithelial tissues different properties

Fig 4.3a pg 120SIMPLE = EXCHANGE OF SUBSTANCES30TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEdifferent combinations of cell layers and shape give epithelial tissues different properties

Fig 4.3b pg 121TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEdifferent combinations of cell layers and shape give epithelial tissues different properties

Fig 4.3c pg 121TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEdifferent combinations of cell layers and shape give epithelial tissues different properties

Fig 4.3d pg 122nuclei occurring at different heights can give the impression of multiple layers, but is only a single layer (i.e. pseudo-stratified) TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICEPITHELIAL TISSUEdifferent combinations of cell layers and shape give epithelial tissues different properties

Fig 4.3d pg 123multi-layered: cells divide from below and are pushed to the surface

suitable for protection or areas subject to wear and tearMULTILAYERED NOT GOOD FOR ABSORPTIONPROTECTION34TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICCONNECTIVE TISSUEmost abundant and widely distributed of the primary tissues, but its amount in particular organs is variable (skin = high; brain = low)does more than just connect body parts, also supports (bone/cartilage), protects, insulates, stores reserve energy (fat) and transports substances

like epithelial tissue, connective tissue has distinguishing characteristics: COMMON ORGIN: all arise from MESENCHYME during embryonic development

DEGREES OF VASCULARITY: dense connective tissue is poorly vascularized, but other types have a rich supply of blood vessels.

EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX: connective tissue is unique in that it is composed largely of non-living tissue called extracellular matrix (ECM)the ECM gives connective tissue its strength to bear weight and withstand forceTISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICCONNECTIVE TISSUEdifferent combinations of cells and fibers (comprised of the proteins COLLAGEN or ELASTIN) give connective tissue different properties

AREOLAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE: most common with variety of functionsFig 4.8a pg 131loosely packed fibersTISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICCONNECTIVE TISSUEdifferent combinations of cells and fibers (comprised of the proteins COLLAGEN or ELASTIN) give connective tissue different properties ADIPOSE (FAT) TISSUE: similar to areolar, but high nutrient storage capacity with a high quantity of ADIPOCYTES or fat cells, used as energy reserves also acts as shock absorber and helps the body to retain heat

Fig 4.8b pg 131TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICCONNECTIVE TISSUEdifferent combinations of cells and fibers (comprised of the proteins COLLAGEN or ELASTIN) give connective tissue different properties DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE: fibers are densely packed and arranged in parallel which gives this tissue great resistance to pulling forces (i.e. HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH) in one directionforms tendons

Fig 4.8d pg 133LOTS OF COLLAGEN = STRENGTH38TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICCONNECTIVE TISSUEdifferent combinations of cells and fibers (comprised of the proteins COLLAGEN or ELASTIN) give connective tissue different properties ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE: found in a few ligaments that are very stretchy, such as those connecting the vertebrae, and the walls of large arteries

Fig 4.8f pg 134high concentration of elastin provides stretchinessFOUND IN AREAS THAT CHANGE SHAPE39TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICCONNECTIVE TISSUECARTILAGE: is intermediate between the dense connective tissue we just described and bone. Cartilage is tough, flexible, avascular and a high water content (reduces compression)types of cartilage differ by the dominant fiber present:HYALINE CARTILAGE: most abundant with mostly collagen fibers

Fig 4.8g pg 135only a small number of cells called CHONDROCYTESTISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICCONNECTIVE TISSUEBONE (OSSEOUS): is very hard and has an exceptional ability to support the bodysimilar to the make-up of cartilage, but with additional collagen fibers and CALCIUM SALTS deposited between the fibersbone cells called OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS secrete these materials

Fig 4.8j pg 137TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICMUSCLE TISSUEMUSCLE TISSUE: highly cellular, well vascularized tissue involved in movement muscle cells possess MYOFILAMENTS composed of the proteins ACTIN and MYOSIN that function during muscle contractionthere are three types of muscle tissue:

1.) SKELETAL: attached to the bones of the skeleton and used in movement possess a striated or banded appearance due to the very ordered structure of actin and myosin in muscle cells

2.) SMOOTH: no striations and found in the walls of hollow organs (e.g. digestive tract and blood vessels)squeezes substances through these organs by contracting and relaxing

3.) CARDIAC: found in the walls of the heart and its contraction helps to propel blood through the bodylike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is striatedTISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICMUSCLE TISSUE1.) SKELETAL: attached to the bones of the skeleton and used in movement possess a striated or banded appearance due to the very ordered structure of actin and myosin in muscle cells

Fig 4.9a pg 138TISSUE: THE LIVING FABRICNERVOUS TISSUENERVOUS TISSUE: main component of brain, spinal cord and nerves which regulate and control body functions

Composed of two main cells:

1. NEURONS: cells specialized for transmitting electrical signals and therefore possess long thin extensions

2. SUPPORTING CELLS: non-conductive and perform a number of tasksFig 4.10 pg 140GLOSSARY OF TISSUE HISTOLOGYhistology and tissue types covered in previous slides may be on lecture examsthe lab component of this course covers many more tissue types than presented in todays lecturefor this reason I have included extra slides with additional tissue histologyyou will not need to know these slides for lecture examsFig 4.3d pg 123

TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUMGLOSSARY OF TISSUE HISTOLOGYRETICLUAR CONNECTIVE TISSUEfibers are softer and this type of connective tissue is more delicate

Fig 4.8c pg 132Fig 4.8e pg 133collagen fibers are thicker and arranged in different directions, so can withstand force from many different directions

GLOSSARY OF TISSUE HISTOLOGYDENSE IRREGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSECARTILAGE: is intermediate between the dense connective tissue we just described and bone. Cartilage is tough, flexible, avascular and a high water content (reduces compression)types of cartilage differ by the dominant fiber present:Fig 4.8h pg 135

GLOSSARY OF TISSUE HISTOLOGYELASTIC CARTILAGEmore elastin fibers so much more stretchableCARTILAGE: is intermediate between the dense connective tissue we just described and bone. Cartilage is tough, flexible, avascular and a high water content (reduces compression)types of cartilage differ by the dominant fiber present:Fig 4.8i pg 136

GLOSSARY OF TISSUE HISTOLOGYFIBROCARTILAGEcontains repeating rows of very thick collagen fibers and is found where very strong support is requiredFOR REVIEW TONIGHTunderstand the three main parts of a composite (typical) cell and associated sub-structuresunderstand the meaning of fluid mosaic modelknow the different types of passive transportunderstand the role of active transport in creating electrochemical gradientsknow types of cell junctionsfamiliarize yourself with the four types of primary tissue, their subtypes, primary function and location in the bodyNEXT LECTURETHE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEMCHAPTER 5