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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 6 The Muscular System

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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Elaine N. Marieb. Chapter 6 The Muscular System. The Muscular System. Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement – they contract or shorten and are the “machines” of the body Three basic muscle types are found in the body Skeletal muscle - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Essentials of Human Anatomy & PhysiologyElaine N. Marieb

Chapter 6The Muscular System

Page 2: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

The Muscular SystemThe Muscular System Muscles are responsible for all types of

body movement – they contract or shorten and are the “machines” of the body

Three basic muscle types are found in the body

Skeletal muscle

Cardiac muscle

Smooth muscle

Page 3: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Characteristics of MusclesCharacteristics of Muscles

Skeletal & smooth muscle cells are elongated (muscle cell = muscle fiber)

Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments

All muscles share some terminology

Prefix myo refers to muscle

Prefix mys refers to muscle

Prefix sarco refers to flesh

Page 4: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Skeletal Muscle CharacteristicsSkeletal Muscle Characteristics

Most are attached by tendons to bones

Cells are multinucleated

Striated – have visible banding

Voluntary – subject to conscious control

Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue = great force, but tires easily

Page 5: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Skeletal Muscle

Page 6: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Connective Tissue Wrappings ofConnective Tissue Wrappings ofSkeletal MuscleSkeletal Muscle

Endomysium – around a single muscle fiber

Perimysium – around a fascicle (bundle) of fibers

Page 7: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Connective Tissue Wrappings ofConnective Tissue Wrappings ofSkeletal MuscleSkeletal Muscle

Epimysium – covers the entire skeletal muscle

Fascia – on the outside of the epimysium

Page 8: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Skeletal Muscle AttachmentsSkeletal Muscle Attachments

Epimysium blends into a connective tissue attachment Tendon – cord-like structure

Aponeuroses – sheet-like structure

Sites of muscle attachment Bones

Cartilages

Connective tissue coverings

Page 9: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Smooth Muscle CharacteristicsSmooth Muscle Characteristics No striations

Spindle-shaped cells

Single nucleus

Involuntary – no conscious control

Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs

Slow, sustained contractions (tireless)

Page 10: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Smooth Muscle

Page 11: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Cardiac Muscle CharacteristicsCardiac Muscle Characteristics Has striations

Usually has a single nucleus

Joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc

Involuntary

Found only in the heart

Steady pace!

Page 12: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Cardiac Muscle

Page 13: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Muscle FunctionsMuscle Functions

Produce movement

Maintain posture

Stabilize joints

Generate heat

Page 14: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Microscopic Anatomy of Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal MuscleSkeletal Muscle

Cells are multinucleate Nuclei are just beneath the specialized

plasma membrane called Sarcolemma

Page 15: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal MuscleMuscle Myofibril

Bundles of myofilaments

Myofibrils are aligned to give distinct bands (striations)

I band = light band

A band = dark band

Page 16: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal MuscleMuscle

Sarcomere Contractile unit of a muscle fiber

Page 17: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal MuscleMuscle Organization of the sarcomere

Thick filaments = Myosin filaments Composed of the protein myosin Contain ATPase enzymes Extend the entire length of the dark A band

Page 18: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal MuscleMuscle

Myosin filaments Myosin heads

Create cross bridges

Page 19: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal MuscleMuscle Organization of the sarcomere

Thin filaments = Actin filaments

Composed of the protein actin

Anchored to the Z disc

Page 20: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Microscopic Anatomy of SkeletalMicroscopic Anatomy of SkeletalMuscleMuscle Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum Stores and releases calcium on demand

when the muscle fiber is stimulated to contract

Page 21: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Skeletal Muscle Activity Skeletal Muscle Activity

Stimulation & Contraction of Single Skeletal Muscle Cells

Irritability – ability to receive and respond to a stimulus

Contractility – ability to shorten when an adequate stimulus is received

Page 22: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Nerve Stimulus to MusclesNerve Stimulus to Muscles Skeletal

muscles must be stimulated by a nerve to contract (motor neruron)

Motor unit One neuron

Muscle cells stimulated by that neuron

Page 23: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Nerve Stimulus to MusclesNerve Stimulus to Muscles

Neuromuscular junctions – association site of nerve and muscle

Page 24: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Nerve Stimulus to MusclesNerve Stimulus to Muscles

Synaptic cleft – gap between nerve and muscle Nerve and

muscle do not make contact

Area between nerve and muscle is filled with interstitial fluid

Page 25: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Transmission of Nerve Impulse to Transmission of Nerve Impulse to MuscleMuscle

Neurotransmitter – chemical released by nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse

The neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter attaches to receptors on the sarcolemma

Sarcolemma becomes permeable to sodium (Na+)

Page 26: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Transmission of Nerve Impulse to Transmission of Nerve Impulse to MuscleMuscle

Sodium rushing into the cell generates an action potential

Once started, muscle contraction cannot be stopped

Page 27: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

The Sliding Filament Theory of The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle ContractionMuscle Contraction

Activation by nerve causes myosin heads (crossbridges) to attach to binding sites on the thin filament

Myosin heads then bind to the next site of the thin filament

Page 28: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

The Sliding Filament Theory of The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle ContractionMuscle Contraction

This continued action causes a sliding of the myosin along the actin

The result is that the muscle is shortened (contracted)

Page 29: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

The Sliding Filament TheoryThe Sliding Filament Theory

Page 30: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Contraction of a Skeletal MuscleContraction of a Skeletal Muscle Muscle fiber contraction is “all or none”

Within a skeletal muscle, not all fibers may be stimulated during the same interval

Different combinations of muscle fiber contractions may give differing responses

Graded responses – different degrees of skeletal muscle shortening, rapid stimulus = constant contraction or tetanus

Page 31: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Muscle Response to Strong StimuliMuscle Response to Strong Stimuli

Muscle force depends upon the number of fibers stimulated

More fibers contracting results in greater muscle tension

Muscles can continue to contract unless they run out of energy

Page 32: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Energy for Muscle ContractionEnergy for Muscle Contraction

Initially, muscles used stored ATP for energy

Bonds of ATP are broken to release energy

Only 4-6 seconds worth of ATP is stored by muscles

After this initial time, other pathways must be utilized to produce ATP

Page 33: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Energy for Muscle ContractionEnergy for Muscle Contraction

Direct phosphorylation Muscle cells contain creatine

phosphate (CP)

CP is a high-energy molecule

After ATP is depleted, ADP is left

CP transfers energy to ADP, to regenerate ATP

CP supplies are exhausted in about 20 seconds

Page 34: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Energy for Muscle ContractionEnergy for Muscle Contraction

Anaerobic glycolysis

Reaction that breaks down glucose without oxygen

Glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid to produce some ATP

Pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid

Page 35: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Energy for Muscle ContractionEnergy for Muscle Contraction

Anaerobic glycolysis (continued)

This reaction is not as efficient, but is fast

Huge amounts of glucose are needed

Lactic acid produces muscle fatigue

Page 36: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Energy for Muscle ContractionEnergy for Muscle Contraction

Aerobic Respiration Series of metabolic

pathways that occur in the mitochondria

Glucose is broken down to carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy

This is a slower reaction that requires continuous oxygen

Page 37: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Muscle Fatigue and Oxygen DebtMuscle Fatigue and Oxygen Debt

When a muscle is fatigued, it is unable to contract

The common reason for muscle fatigue is oxygen debt Oxygen must be “repaid” to tissue to remove

oxygen debt

Oxygen is required to get rid of accumulated lactic acid

Increasing acidity (from lactic acid) and lack of ATP causes the muscle to contract less

Page 38: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Types of Muscle ContractionsTypes of Muscle Contractions

Isotonic contractions Myofilaments are able to slide past each

other during contractions

The muscle shortens

Isometric contractions Tension in the muscles increases

The muscle is unable to shorten

Page 39: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Muscle ToneMuscle Tone

Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed muscle

Different fibers contract at different times to provide muscle tone

The process of stimulating various fibers is under involuntary control

Page 40: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Effects of Exercise on MusclesEffects of Exercise on Muscles

Results of increased muscle use

Increase in muscle size

Increase in muscle strength

Increase in muscle efficiency

Muscle becomes more fatigue resistant

Page 41: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Muscle Movements, Types, and

NamesTextbook page 192

Page 42: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Five Golden Rules of Skeletal Muscle

Activity1) With a few exceptions, all muscles cross at

least one joint

2) Typically, the bulk of the muscle lies proximal to the joint crossed

3) All muscles have at least 2 attachments origin & insertion

4) Muscles can only pull; they never push

5) During contraction, the muscle insertion moves toward the origin

Page 43: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Muscles and Body MovementsMuscles and Body Movements

Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone

Page 44: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Muscles and Body MovementsMuscles and Body Movements

Muscles are attached to bone, or to other connective tissue structures, at no less than two points

Origin – attachment to the stationary bone

Insertion – attachment to the movable bone

Page 45: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Types of Body Movements Flexion- Decreases the

angle of the joint and brings 2 bones closer together (Bending the knee or elbow)

Extension – Opposite of flexion- increases the angle between 2 bones (Straightening the knee or elbow)

Hyperextension- Extension >180 degrees (Tipping your head back so your chin points toward the ceiling)

Page 46: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Page 47: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Types of Body Movements

Rotation- Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis; Common with ball and socket joints describes the movement with the atlas around the dens of the axis (Shaking your head “no”)

Abduction – Moving a limb away from the midline of the body; Fanning movement of fingers, toes

Adduction – Movement of a limb towards the body midline; Opposite of abduction

Circumduction – Combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. Proximal end of limb is stationary, distal end moves in a circle Limb as a whole outlines a cone

See textbook page 195

Page 48: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Left: Abduction – moving the leg away from the midline

Above : Adduction- moving toward the midline

Right: Circumduction: cone-shaped movement, proximal end doesn’t move, while distal end moves in a circle.

Page 49: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Special Movements

Dorsiflexion Lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin

Plantar flexion Pointing the toes

Inversion To invert the foot- turn the sole medially

Eversion To evert the foot- turn the sole laterally

Page 50: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Special Movements

Supination- Forearm rotates laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly, and the radius and ulna are parallel (Carry “soup” --> “soup”-inating)

Pronation- Forearm rotates medially so the palm faces posteriorly (Face down)

Opposition- Action by which you move your thumb to touch the tips of the other fingers on the same hand

(See textbook page 195)

Page 51: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Interactions of Skeletal Muscles Interactions of Skeletal Muscles

Prime mover – muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement

Antagonist – muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover When the prime mover is active; its

antagonist is stretched and relaxed

Synergist – muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation

Page 52: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Naming Skeletal Muscles

Direction of Muscle Fiber – Rectus femoris

Relative Size- Gluteus maximus

Location – Temporalis & frontalis muscles; Sterno- on the sternum

Number of Origins – Biceps, triceps, quadriceps

Shape – Deltoid (Triangular)

Action – Flexor; extensor; adductor

Page 53: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Page 54: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Head and Neck MusclesHead and Neck Muscles

Page 55: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Trunk MusclesTrunk Muscles

Page 56: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Deep Trunk and Arm MusclesDeep Trunk and Arm Muscles

Page 57: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, and ThighMuscles of the Pelvis, Hip, and Thigh

Page 58: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Muscles of the Lower LegMuscles of the Lower Leg

Page 59: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Superficial Muscles: AnteriorSuperficial Muscles: Anterior

Page 60: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Superficial Muscles: PosteriorSuperficial Muscles: Posterior

Page 61: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Intramuscular Injections(vs. subcutaneous)

Muscle Injection Site LandmarkLandmarks

Deltoid Acromion of Scapula Acromion of Scapula

Vastus Lateralis ½ way betweenGreater Trochanter of Femur and Patellahalfway of between

greater trochanter femur and patella

Gluteus Medius lIIiac Crest

Page 62: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Muscle Strain Website

What is a Muscle Strain?

A muscle strain is damage caused by over-stretching of muscle tissue. The muscle tissue becomes overloaded and reaches a breaking point where a tear or partial tear occurs.

GRADE 1 STRAIN: There is damage to individual muscle fibers (less than 5% of fibers). This is a mild strain which requires 2 to 3 weeks rest.

GRADE 2 STRAIN: There is more extensive damage, with more muscle fibers involved, but the muscle is not completely ruptured. The rest period required is usually between 3 and 6 weeks.

GRADE 3 STRAIN: This is a complete rupture of a muscle. In a sports person this will usually require surgery to repair the muscle. The rehabilitation time is around 3 months.

Page 63: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Common InjuriesHamstring pull/strain

tears of tendinous origins website

cause – rigorous running/quick stop-start

Page 64: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Groin Pull

Strain of distal

abductors of iliac crest

website

Page 65: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

• Shin Splints -pain in the Distal, medial 2/3 of shin

-Tendonitis of periosteum

-running on hard surfaces/

improper running shoes

website

Page 66: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Patello-Femoral Syndrome

Knee – patello-femoral syndrome a.k.a.: runner’s knee-lateral tracking of patella-result from over-running website

Page 67: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Plantar Faciitis - chronic irritation at origin of Calcaneus- -“painful-heel syndrome”website

Page 68: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Treatments

RICE

Rest/Ice/Compression/Elevation

Anti-inflammatory—ibuprofen (NSAIDS)

-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Steroidal drugs—cortisone/hydrocortisone

Page 69: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Disorders relating to the Muscular

System Muscular Dystrophy: inherited, muscle

enlarge due to increased fat and connective tissue, but fibers degenerate and atrophy

Duchenne MD: lacking a protein to maintain the sarcolemma

Myasthemia Gravis: progressive weakness due to a shortage of acetylcholine receptors

Page 70: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

Types of Ordinary Body Types of Ordinary Body Movements websiteMovements website

Abduction/Adduction (see slides)

Circumduction (see slides)