human anatomy & physiology (hap)

Human Anatomy & Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP) Physiology (HAP) Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to HAP Introduction to HAP Text-Hole Text-Hole s Essentials s Essentials of HAP of HAP

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Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP). Chapter 1 Introduction to HAP Text-Hole ’ s Essentials of HAP. Prefixes and Suffixes. Learn the prefixes & suffixes in every unit - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Page 1: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Human Anatomy & Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)Physiology (HAP)

Chapter 1Chapter 1Introduction to HAPIntroduction to HAP

Text-HoleText-Hole’’s Essentials of HAPs Essentials of HAP

Page 2: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Prefixes and SuffixesPrefixes and SuffixesLearn the prefixes & suffixes in every unitLearn the prefixes & suffixes in every unit

Copy the Copy the prefixesprefixes and and suffixessuffixes at the at the beginning of every unit onto beginning of every unit onto ““FoldFold”” SheetSheet ….write the word on front left side ….write the word on front left side and the definition on the back left side and the definition on the back left side and fold to see definition.and fold to see definition.

PracticePractice using the sheet to improve your using the sheet to improve your memorization of the terms.memorization of the terms.

Page 3: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Ch 1 Prefixes & SuffixesAppend-Append- Pariet-Pariet-

Cardi-Cardi- Pelv-Pelv-

Cran-Cran- Peri-Peri-

Dors-Dors- Pleur-Pleur-

Homeo-Homeo- -stasis-stasis

-logy-logy -tomy-tomy


Page 4: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

AnatomyAnatomy Structure (Structure (morphologymorphology), form and ), form and

organization of body partsorganization of body parts

PhysiologyPhysiology Functions of body partsFunctions of body parts

Difficult to separate the two SciencesDifficult to separate the two Sciences

Page 5: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization(least to most complex)(least to most complex)







Organ SystemsOrgan Systems

Organism (Human)Organism (Human)

Descriptions – atomic, molecular & cellular levelsDescriptions – atomic, molecular & cellular levels

Page 6: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Ten Ten Characteristics of LifeCharacteristics of LifeMovement Movement – Change position; motion– Change position; motion

ResponsivenessResponsiveness - Reaction to a stimulus - Reaction to a stimulus

GrowthGrowth- increase size w/o change in shape- increase size w/o change in shape


RespirationRespiration - release energy from food - release energy from food


AbsorptionAbsorption- move substances thru membrane- move substances thru membrane

CirculationCirculation-move substances thru fluids-move substances thru fluids

AssimilationAssimilation- change substances- change substances

ExcretionExcretion- remove metabolic wastes- remove metabolic wastes

Page 7: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Environmental FactorsEnvironmental Factors Vital to LifeVital to Life

WaterWater Medium for metabolic processesMedium for metabolic processes Transports substances within organismTransports substances within organism Regulation of body temperatureRegulation of body temperature

Page 8: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

FoodFood Provides water and nutrients Provides water and nutrients

(chemicals)(chemicals)Chemicals for Chemicals for EnergyEnergy used in used in metabolic processes metabolic processes

Raw materialRaw material for building new matter for building new matter

Chemicals to Chemicals to Regulate ReactionsRegulate Reactions

Page 9: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

OxygenOxygen Necessary in order to Necessary in order to Release Release

EnergyEnergy from Food from Food

Page 10: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

HeatHeat Energy Energy Produced in Metabolic RxnsProduced in Metabolic Rxns Affect Metabolic Rxn ratesAffect Metabolic Rxn rates

Increase Heat Increase Heat Increase Rate Increase Rate

Page 11: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

PressurePressure- applied force- applied forceAtmospheric PressureAtmospheric Pressure Weight of Atmosphere (14.7lbs/in2)Weight of Atmosphere (14.7lbs/in2)

Hydrostatic PressureHydrostatic Pressure Weight of Fluid on organismWeight of Fluid on organism

*Blood Pressure*Blood Pressure

Page 12: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Maintaining a Stable Maintaining a Stable Internal Internal EnvironmentEnvironment

HomeostasisHomeostasis Maintained by a Maintained by a self-regulating self-regulating

system (3 components)system (3 components)**Set-pointSet-point – ex. 37C (98.6F) body – ex. 37C (98.6F) body temp.temp.

**ReceptorsReceptors – get info – get info**Effectors Effectors – cause response– cause responseNegative Feedback ResponseNegative Feedback Response

Page 13: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Organization of the Human BodyOrganization of the Human BodyTwo Portions or Divisions:Two Portions or Divisions: Axial portion



Trunk of BodyTrunk of Body Appendicular portion

Upper & Lower LimbsUpper & Lower Limbs

Page 14: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

AxialAxial anatomy:anatomy:

Cranial Cavity

Vertebral Canal

Thoracic Cavity



Page 15: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Cranial CavityFour Four Smaller Cavities within Smaller Cavities within the Head:the Head: OralOral Cavity Cavity NasalNasal Cavity Cavity OrbitalOrbital Cavity Cavity Middle EarMiddle Ear


Page 16: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Orbital CavityOrbital Cavity =__Q5Ij1KFzAIbY0Kch1V4dh0DSWZ8=&h=303&w=382&sz=107&hl=en&start=10&um=1&tbnid=PKjdwZqi94CNSM:&tbnh=98&tbnw=123&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmiddle%2Bear%2Bcavity%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4DMUS_en___US250%26sa%3DN

Middle Ear


Page 17: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

ThoracicThoracic & & AbdominopelvicAbdominopelvicCavitiesCavities

Organs are called Organs are called VISCERAVISCERA

Cavities separated by Cavities separated by DIAPHRAGMDIAPHRAGM

Page 18: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Thoracic CavityThree Regions:

Left LungRight LungMediastinum

Heart- moves bloodEsophagus- moves food Trachea- moves air Thymus- gland (hormone)

Page 19: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Abdominopelvic CavityTwoTwo Regions Regions

AbdominalAbdominal Cavity Cavity

PelvicPelvic Cavity Cavity Within hipsWithin hips

Page 20: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Abdominal CavityViscera:Viscera:






Small IntestineSmall Intestine

Large IntestineLarge Intestine

Page 21: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Pelvic CavityEnclosed by Hip bonesEnclosed by Hip bones

*Urinary *Urinary BladderBladder*Terminal portion *Terminal portion Large IntestinesLarge Intestines*Internal *Internal ReproductiveReproductive OrgansOrgans



Large Intestines

Page 22: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Warm-upWarm-upWrite the following (21)terms and the Write the following (21)terms and the definition on a sheet of paper in your definition on a sheet of paper in your

notebook:notebook:Abdominal Carpal CubitalAcromialAcromial CeliacCeliac DigitalDigitalAntebrachialAntebrachial CephalicCephalic DorsalDorsalAntecubitalAntecubital CervicalCervical FemoralFemoralAxillaryAxillary CostalCostal FrontalFrontalBrachialBrachial CoxalCoxal GenitalGenitalBuccalBuccal CruralCrural GlutealGluteal


Page 23: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Thoracic & Abdominopelvic Thoracic & Abdominopelvic MembranesMembranes

Two types: Parietal

Membranes attached to the wall Membranes attached to the wall of a cavityof a cavity

Visceral Membranes covering an internal Membranes covering an internal

organ within a cavityorgan within a cavity

Page 24: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)
Page 25: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Types of Types of Parietal Parietal and and VisceralVisceral Membranes:Membranes:

Thoracic Cavity:

MediastinumMediastinum:: Parietal Parietal PericardiumPericardium-lines pericardial -lines pericardial

((HeartHeart) cavity) cavity Visceral Visceral PericardiumPericardium- covers Heart- covers Heart

Rt & Lft Thoracic Compartments:Rt & Lft Thoracic Compartments: Parietal Parietal PleuraPleura- line compartments- line compartments Visceral Visceral PleuraPleura- covers - covers lungslungs

Page 26: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Abdominopelvic Cavity

Peritoneal Membranes :Membranes : Parietal Parietal PeritoneumPeritoneum- lines cavity- lines cavity Visceral Visceral PeritoneumPeritoneum – covers – covers

abdominalabdominal organs organs

Potential Potential Space BetweenSpace Between Parietal Parietal and Visceral Membranes= and Visceral Membranes= CavityCavity

Page 27: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)
Page 28: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Organ SystemsOrgan Systems

Interrelated Organs working Interrelated Organs working together to enable their system together to enable their system

to contribute to to contribute to HOMEOSTASISHOMEOSTASIS

Page 29: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Integumentary SystemIntegumentary SystemSkin, Nails, Hair, Sweat Glands, Skin, Nails, Hair, Sweat Glands,

Sebaceous Glands (oil)Sebaceous Glands (oil)

• ProtectProtect underlying tissues underlying tissues

• Aid in the regulation of body Aid in the regulation of body temperaturetemperature

• Contain Contain sensorysensory receptors receptors

• SynthesizeSynthesize other products (melanin) other products (melanin)

Page 30: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Page 31: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Skeletal SystemSkeletal SystemBones, Ligaments & CartilagesBones, Ligaments & Cartilages

• FrameworkFramework

• ProtectionProtection of underlying soft tissues of underlying soft tissues

• Attachment for musclesAttachment for muscles

• MovementMovement

• Produce Produce Blood CellsBlood Cells

• StoreStore Inorganic Salts (calcium) Inorganic Salts (calcium)

Page 32: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Page 33: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Muscular SystemMuscular SystemOrgan = MusclesOrgan = Muscles

Force for Force for body movementbody movement Maintain Maintain postureposture Main source of Main source of Body HeatBody Heat

Page 34: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Nervous SystemBrain, spinal cord, nerves and sense Brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense


• ControlControl & adjust various & adjust various organ organ functionsfunctions

• Nerve impulse= short term Nerve impulse= short term electrochemicalelectrochemical impulse impulse

• Nerve functions: Nerve functions: • Detect, Receive or Interpret ImpulsesDetect, Receive or Interpret Impulses

Page 35: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Page 36: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Endocrine SystemEndocrine SystemAll of the Glands that secrete All of the Glands that secrete hormoneshormones (Chemical messengers)(Chemical messengers)

Hypothalamus (brain)Hypothalamus (brain)

Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal GlandsPituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal Glands

Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes, Pineal Gland & Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes, Pineal Gland & ThymusThymus

Hormones leave the gland & affect specific Hormones leave the gland & affect specific TARGET CELLSTARGET CELLS..

Hormone effects may last a long timeHormone effects may last a long time

Page 37: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Page 38: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Cardiovascular SystemCardiovascular SystemHeart, Arteries, Veins, Capillaries & Heart, Arteries, Veins, Capillaries &


• Transport systemTransport system

for gases, nutrients, for gases, nutrients,

hormones & wasteshormones & wastes

Page 39: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Lymphatic SystemLymphatic SystemLymph vessels, lymph fluid, Lymph vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, lymphocytes, lymph nodes, lymphocytes,

thymus & spleenthymus & spleen• Transport systemTransport system for for tissue tissue

fluidfluid• Carries fattyCarries fatty substances into substances into

blood streamblood stream• LymphocytesLymphocytes (cells) (cells) fight fight


Page 40: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Digestive SystemDigestive SystemMouth, Tongue, Teeth, Salivary Mouth, Tongue, Teeth, Salivary

Glands, Pharynx, Esophagus, Glands, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Liver, Gallbladder, Stomach, Liver, Gallbladder,

Pancreas, Small Intestine & Large Pancreas, Small Intestine & Large IntestineIntestine

• Receive, break down & absorb foodReceive, break down & absorb food

• Eliminate wastesEliminate wastes

Page 41: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Page 42: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Nasal Cavity, Pharynx,

Larynx, Trachea, Larynx, Trachea,

Bronchi & LungsBronchi & Lungs

• Move airMove air (in & out) (in & out)

• Exchange gasExchange gas

between blood & airbetween blood & air

(Oxygen into blood, CO2 into air)(Oxygen into blood, CO2 into air)

Respiratory SystemRespiratory System

Page 43: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Urinary SystemUrinary SystemKidneys, ureters, Kidneys, ureters,

urinary bladder & urinary bladder & urethraurethra

• Remove wasteRemove waste from bloodfrom blood

• Help Help maintain body maintain body water & saltwater & salt concentrations concentrations (electrolytes)(electrolytes)

Page 44: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Reproductive SystemReproductive SystemMale- Male- Scrotum, testes, epididymides, Scrotum, testes, epididymides,

vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethreal prostate gland, bulbourethreal glands, penis & urethraglands, penis & urethra

• Produce & maintain sperm cellsProduce & maintain sperm cells

• Transfer sperm cells Transfer sperm cells (spermatozoa)(spermatozoa)

Page 45: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Male Reproductive SystemMale Reproductive System

Page 46: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Female Reproductive SystemFemale Reproductive SystemOvaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina,

clitoris & vulvaclitoris & vulva• Produce & maintain eggs (oocytes)Produce & maintain eggs (oocytes)• Receive sperm cellsReceive sperm cells• Transport eggs & sperm w/in systemTransport eggs & sperm w/in system• Supports development of embryo & Supports development of embryo &

fetusesfetuses• Provides passageway for fetus to leave Provides passageway for fetus to leave

the prenatal environmentthe prenatal environment

Page 47: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Female Reproductive SystemFemale Reproductive System

Page 48: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)


Body Region (21)Terms (pg 15-17) Body Region (21)Terms (pg 15-17) TextbookTextbook

Inguinal Palmar Popliteal

LumbarLumbar PatellarPatellar SacralSacral

MammaryMammary PectoralPectoral SternalSternal

MentalMental PedalPedal TarsalTarsal

NasalNasal PelvicPelvic UmbilicalUmbilical

OccipitalOccipital PerinealPerineal VertebralVertebral

OticOtic PlantarPlantar

Page 49: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Anatomical TermsAnatomical Terms (Based upon Anatomical Position)(Based upon Anatomical Position)

Anatomical PositionAnatomical Position

*Standing Erect*Standing Erect

*Face Forward*Face Forward

*Upper Limbs at side*Upper Limbs at side

*Palms forward*Palms forward

*Right & Left refer to the body being *Right & Left refer to the body being studiedstudied

Page 50: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Body PlanesBody Planes




Page 51: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Relative Position TermsRelative Position Terms(in respect to another body part)(in respect to another body part)

SuperiorSuperior - above, closer to head - above, closer to headInferiorInferior -below, toward the feet -below, toward the feetAnteriorAnterior -ventral, toward the front -ventral, toward the frontPosteriorPosterior -dorsal, toward the back -dorsal, toward the backMedianMedian -toward the midline -toward the midlineLateral -Lateral -toward the sidetoward the sideProximalProximal -closer to attachment to the Trunk -closer to attachment to the TrunkDistalDistal -farther from the Trunk attachment -farther from the Trunk attachmentSuperficialSuperficial -near the surface -near the surfaceDeepDeep -more internal -more internal

Page 52: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Abdominopelvic Body RegionsAbdominopelvic Body Regions

Page 53: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

AbdominopelvicAbdominopelvic QuadrantsQuadrants

Page 54: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Medical Imaging-Medical Imaging- Allows NON- Allows NON-Invasive Visualization of Structures Invasive Visualization of Structures

Inside the BodyInside the BodyRadiographyRadiography

(X-Ray)- a single (X-Ray)- a single barrage of X-rays barrage of X-rays passes through the passes through the body, producing an body, producing an image of interior image of interior structures on X-ray structures on X-ray sensitive filmsensitive film

Page 55: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Magnetic Resonance Magnetic Resonance ImagingImaging (MRI) (MRI)

High-energy magnetic High-energy magnetic field which causes field which causes protons in body fluids protons in body fluids & tissues to arrange & tissues to arrange themselves in relation themselves in relation to the field. to the field.

Produces an image on Produces an image on a video monitora video monitor

Page 56: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Computed TomographyComputed Tomography (CT) (CT)

Computer-assisted RadiographyComputer-assisted Radiography

X-Ray beam is arced at multiple X-Ray beam is arced at multiple angles around a section of body.angles around a section of body.

The scan is reproduced on a The scan is reproduced on a monitor.monitor.

(once called a CAT scan)(once called a CAT scan)

Page 57: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)


Use of Cyclic sound pressure to Use of Cyclic sound pressure to penetrate the body, and penetrate the body, and measuring the reflective signature measuring the reflective signature of the inner structures.of the inner structures.

Page 58: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Clinical Application TermsClinical Application TermsPalpations, Auscultation & PercussionPalpations, Auscultation & Percussion Non-Invasive techniques to assess Non-Invasive techniques to assess certain aspects of body structure & certain aspects of body structure & function.function. PalpationPalpation-examiner feels body surfaces -examiner feels body surfaces

with hands (ex. pulse)with hands (ex. pulse) AuscultationAuscultation-listen (stethoscope) to -listen (stethoscope) to

body soundsbody sounds PercussionPercussion-tap on body surface to listen -tap on body surface to listen

or feel for resulting echoor feel for resulting echo

Page 59: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

AutopsyAutopsyExamination of the body after Examination of the body after death.death.

May reveal existence of May reveal existence of diseases not detected during diseases not detected during

May determine extent of May determine extent of injuries, explaining how the injuries, explaining how the injuries may have contributed injuries may have contributed to a personto a person’’s death.s death.

Page 60: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Diagnosis of DiseaseDiagnosis of DiseaseDiagnosisDiagnosis- science & skill of - science & skill of distinguishing one disorder or disease distinguishing one disorder or disease from another.from another. Medical History-Medical History- collection of collection of

information that might relate to a information that might relate to a personperson’’s illnesss illness

Physical Examination-Physical Examination- orderly orderly evaluation of the body & its evaluation of the body & its functions.functions.

Page 61: Human Anatomy & Physiology (HAP)

Medical & Applied SciencesMedical & Applied SciencesSee page 18 Textbook:See page 18 Textbook:

CardiologyCardiology HistologyHistology PathologyPathology

CytologyCytology ImmunologyImmunology PediatricsPediatrics

DermatologyDermatology NeonatologyNeonatology PharmacologyPharmacology

EndocrinologyEndocrinology NephrologyNephrology PodiatryPodiatry

EpidemiologyEpidemiology NeurologyNeurology PsychiatryPsychiatry

GastroenterologyGastroenterology ObstetricsObstetrics RadiologyRadiology

GeriatricsGeriatrics OncologyOncology ToxicologyToxicology

GerontologyGerontology OphthalmologyOphthalmology UrologyUrology

GynecologyGynecology OrthopedicsOrthopedics

HematologyHematology OtolaryngologyOtolaryngology