anatomy & physiology human structure & human function

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Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure Human Structure & & Human Function Human Function

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Page 1: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Anatomy & PhysiologyAnatomy & Physiology

Human Structure Human Structure

&&

Human FunctionHuman Function

Page 2: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Anatomical CategoriesAnatomical CategoriesI. Microscopic Anatomy:I. Microscopic Anatomy: structures not able structures not able

to be seen with the naked eye.to be seen with the naked eye.A.A. Cytology Cytology internal structure of individual cellsinternal structure of individual cells

BB. Histology. Histology is examination of tissues is examination of tissues

II. Gross anatomyII. Gross anatomy: is what is visible with : is what is visible with naked eyenaked eye..A. A. Surface AnatomySurface Anatomy general form and superficial general form and superficial markingsmarkings

B.B. Regional Anatomy Regional Anatomy superficial and internal superficial and internal structures in a specific region of the bodystructures in a specific region of the body

C.C. Systemic Anatomy Systemic Anatomy structure of major organ structure of major organ systemssystems

Page 3: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Physiology CategoriesPhysiology Categories

Human phys.Human phys. study of the functions study of the functions of the human bodyof the human body

Special phys.Special phys. study of physiology of study of physiology of special organsspecial organs

System phys.System phys. all aspects of the all aspects of the functions of specific organ systems.functions of specific organ systems.

Pathological phys.Pathological phys. studies the studies the effects of disease on an organ or effects of disease on an organ or system.system.

Page 4: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Human StructureHuman StructureHierarchy of complexityHierarchy of complexity

– organism composed of organ organism composed of organ systems systems

– organ systems composed of organ systems composed of organs organs

– organs composed of tissues organs composed of tissues – tissues composed of cells tissues composed of cells – cells composed of organelles cells composed of organelles – organelles composed of organelles composed of

macromolecules macromolecules – macromolecules composed of macromolecules composed of

moleculesmolecules– molecules are composed of molecules are composed of

atoms.atoms.

Page 5: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Human FunctionHuman Function

Characteristics of life:Characteristics of life:– Homeostasis – maintain an constant internal Homeostasis – maintain an constant internal

environment.environment.– Cellular composition – composed of cells.Cellular composition – composed of cells.– Use raw materials and remove waste products Use raw materials and remove waste products – Metabolism (use energy) Metabolism (use energy) – Responsiveness to environment Responsiveness to environment – Development (growth or differentiation) Development (growth or differentiation) – Reproduction – the ABILITY toReproduction – the ABILITY to– Evolution – change over timeEvolution – change over time

Page 6: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Major ThemesMajor Themes

Unifying principles behind all aspects of human Unifying principles behind all aspects of human anatomy and physiology anatomy and physiology – Cell theory:Cell theory: all structure & function result from all structure & function result from

the activity of cells the activity of cells – Homeostasis:Homeostasis: maintaining stable conditions maintaining stable conditions

within the body within the body – Evolution:Evolution: the body is a product of evolution, the body is a product of evolution,

molded by years of natural selection molded by years of natural selection – Hierarchy of structure:Hierarchy of structure: levels of complexity levels of complexity – Structure determines functionStructure determines function (and vice (and vice

versa): physiology can not be separated from versa): physiology can not be separated from anatomyanatomy

Page 7: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

11 Organ Systems11 Organ Systems

IntegumentaryIntegumentary SkeletalSkeletal MuscularMuscular NervousNervous EndocrineEndocrine CardiovascularCardiovascular

LymphaticLymphatic RespiratoryRespiratory DigestiveDigestive UrinaryUrinary ReproductiveReproductive

Page 8: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Review QuestionsReview Questions

1.1. What is anatomy? What is anatomy?

2.2. What is physiology? What is physiology?

3.3. Describe the organizational levels of human Describe the organizational levels of human structure (from atom to organism). structure (from atom to organism).

4.4. Define homeostasis. Define homeostasis.

5.5. Explain at least five characteristics of life.Explain at least five characteristics of life.

Page 9: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Directional TermsDirectional TermsDirectional terms describe the positions of structures relative to Directional terms describe the positions of structures relative to

other structures or locations in the body. other structures or locations in the body.

Superior or cranialSuperior or cranialtoward the head end of the body; upper (example, the hand is toward the head end of the body; upper (example, the hand is part of the superior extremity). part of the superior extremity).

Inferior or caudalInferior or caudal away from the head; lower (example, the foot is part of the away from the head; lower (example, the foot is part of the inferior extremity). inferior extremity).

Anterior or ventralAnterior or ventralfront (example, the kneecap is located on the anterior side of front (example, the kneecap is located on the anterior side of the leg). the leg).

Page 10: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Directional Terms Directional Terms (cont.)(cont.)

Posterior or dorsalPosterior or dorsal – back (example, the shoulder blades – back (example, the shoulder blades on the posterior side of the body). on the posterior side of the body).

MedialMedial - toward the midline of the body (example, the - toward the midline of the body (example, the middle toe is located at the medial side of the foot). middle toe is located at the medial side of the foot).

LateralLateral - away from the midline of the body (example, the - away from the midline of the body (example, the little toe is located at the lateral side of the foot). little toe is located at the lateral side of the foot).

ProximalProximal - toward or nearest the trunk or the point of - toward or nearest the trunk or the point of origin of a part (example, the proximal end of the femur origin of a part (example, the proximal end of the femur joins with the pelvic bone). joins with the pelvic bone).

DistalDistal - away from or farthest from the trunk or the point or - away from or farthest from the trunk or the point or origin of a part (example, the hand is located at the distal origin of a part (example, the hand is located at the distal end of the forearm). end of the forearm).

Page 11: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Medical professionals often refer to sections of the body in terms of

anatomical planes (flat surfaces). These planes are imaginary lines - vertical or horizontal - drawn through an upright

body. The terms are used to describe a specific body part.

BODY PLANES

Page 12: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Coronal Plane (Frontal Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane)Plane)A vertical plane running from A vertical plane running from side to side; divides the body side to side; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions. and posterior portions.

Sagittal Plane (Lateral Sagittal Plane (Lateral Plane)Plane)A vertical plane running from A vertical plane running from front to back; divides the body front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right or any of its parts into right and left sides. and left sides.

Axial Plane (Transverse Axial Plane (Transverse Plane)Plane)A horizontal plane; divides the A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts. upper and lower parts.

Median planeMedian planeSagittal plane through the Sagittal plane through the midline of the body; divides midline of the body; divides the body or any of its parts the body or any of its parts into right and left halves.into right and left halves.

Page 13: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Body RegionsBody Regions

Upper Limb – arm and forearmUpper Limb – arm and forearm

Lower Limb – thigh and legLower Limb – thigh and leg

Central – head, neck and trunkCentral – head, neck and trunk

Page 14: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Body CavitiesBody Cavities

The cavities, or spaces, of the body The cavities, or spaces, of the body contain the internal organs, or contain the internal organs, or

viscera. The two main cavities are viscera. The two main cavities are called the ventral and dorsal cavities. called the ventral and dorsal cavities. The ventral is the larger cavity and is The ventral is the larger cavity and is subdivided into two parts (thoracic subdivided into two parts (thoracic

and abdominopelvic cavities) by the and abdominopelvic cavities) by the diaphragm, a dome-shaped diaphragm, a dome-shaped

respiratory muscle.respiratory muscle.

Page 15: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Body CavitiesBody Cavities

External:External: Cranial – the skull cavityCranial – the skull cavity Thoracic – surrounds by the ribsThoracic – surrounds by the ribs Vertebral – area around vertebral columnVertebral – area around vertebral column Abdominal – bounded by abdominal muscles.Abdominal – bounded by abdominal muscles. Pelvic – enclosed by pelvic bonesPelvic – enclosed by pelvic bonesInternal:Internal: Pericardial – surrounds the heartPericardial – surrounds the heart Pleural – surrounds the lungsPleural – surrounds the lungs Peritoneal – small cavity w/in the Peritoneal – small cavity w/in the

abdominal/pelvic cavitiesabdominal/pelvic cavities

Page 16: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function
Page 17: Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

Thoracic cavityThoracic cavityThe upper ventral, thoracic, or chest cavity The upper ventral, thoracic, or chest cavity contains the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, contains the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, large blood vessels, and nerves. The thoracic large blood vessels, and nerves. The thoracic cavity is bound laterally by the ribs (covered by cavity is bound laterally by the ribs (covered by costal pleura) and the diaphragm caudally costal pleura) and the diaphragm caudally (covered by diaphragmatic pleura). (covered by diaphragmatic pleura).

Abdominal and pelvic cavityAbdominal and pelvic cavity The lower part of the ventral (abdominopelvic) The lower part of the ventral (abdominopelvic) cavity can be further divided into two portions: cavity can be further divided into two portions: abdominal portion and pelvic portion. The abdominal portion and pelvic portion. The abdominal cavity contains most of the abdominal cavity contains most of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract as well as the kidneys and adrenal glands. The abdominal cavity is bound adrenal glands. The abdominal cavity is bound cranially by the diaphragm, laterally by the cranially by the diaphragm, laterally by the body wall, and caudally by the pelvic cavity. body wall, and caudally by the pelvic cavity. The pelvic cavity contains most of the The pelvic cavity contains most of the urogenital system as well as the rectum. The urogenital system as well as the rectum. The pelvic cavity is bounded cranially by the pelvic cavity is bounded cranially by the abdominal cavity, dorsally by the sacrum, and abdominal cavity, dorsally by the sacrum, and laterally by the pelvis. laterally by the pelvis.

Dorsal cavityDorsal cavityThe smaller of the two main cavities is called The smaller of the two main cavities is called the dorsal cavity. As its name implies, it the dorsal cavity. As its name implies, it contains organs lying more posterior in the contains organs lying more posterior in the body. The dorsal cavity, again, can be divided body. The dorsal cavity, again, can be divided into two portions. The upper portion, or the into two portions. The upper portion, or the cranial cavity, houses the brain, and the lower cranial cavity, houses the brain, and the lower portion, or vertebral canal houses the spinal portion, or vertebral canal houses the spinal cord.cord.