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GERMAN UNIFICATION. Last to achieve unification in Europe in 1815 was a group of 39 independent states In 1815 a German Confederation was formed at the Congress of Vienna (why?). Buffer state against French expansion Had an assembly (diet) in Frankfurt - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • Last to achieve unification in Europe

    in 1815 was a group of 39 independent states

    In 1815 a German Confederation was formed at the Congress of Vienna (why?)

  • Buffer state against French expansion

    Had an assembly (diet) in Frankfurt

    Confederation was dominated by Austria

    Austria was in direct conflict with Prussia

  • -Prussia was a German state with the most dominant economy, so other states feared them

    -Prussia doesnt want a unified Germany and neither does Austria (why?)

    Smaller German states want to see a united Germany-fear Austria and Prussia-Unity brings them strength

  • -economic conditions prevented the Germans from uniting until:The Junkers (yun-kers)- members of the rising business class, demanded a share of political powerPrussian Junkers created the ZOLLVEREIN- an economic union founded in 1834 that reduces trade barriers between the German states (modern day example?)

  • 2) Standardized units and measures

    3) The economic union caused Prussia to win political dominance over Austria-Prussia is now leader of Germans much like Sardinia was with Italy

  • The Rise of Bismarck-In 1861 William I (right) becomes king of Prussia (succeeding Frederick William II) -opposes liberal ideas-Supports the military and works to expand the army-seeks to take Germany by military force-Liberal Germans, however, see no need for a strong military and want a democratic Germany-As a result, liberal deputies in the Prussian assembly overwhelmingly defeat new taxes to support army

  • -frustrated with the Prussian assemblys actions, William I appoints a new prime minister who supports his views on the military:OTTO VON BISMARCK (left)-a Junker-served in the Prussian assembly-Ambassador to Russia and FranceA brilliant negotiator/politician A supporter of REALPOLITIK (the right of the nation-state to pursue its own advantages by any means, including war and the repudiation of treaties

  • -in September of 1862 Bismarck defied the finance committee when the Prussian Assembly refused to collect taxes for the army- Bismarck collects the taxes without authorization-BLOOD and IRONGermany does not look to Prussias liberalism, but to her power.The great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions-that was the mistake of 1848 and 1849-but by blood and Iron -Otto Von Bismarck 1862

  • Bismarck had 3 major goalsRaise $$ for army expansionReduce Austrias influence among the German statesUnify Germany w/o Austria or Switzerland, but keep them under Prussian domination-Went to war three different times to accomplish these goals

  • War with DenmarkBy inheritance, king of Denmark ruled the territories of Schleswig and HolsteinSchleswig had a German and Danish population; Holstein was entirely German -in 1863 King Christian IX claims Schleswig a Danish providence and Germans in both territories appeal to the German states for support-to prevent Danish annexation, Bismarck persuades Austria to go in/w Prussia in declaring war against Denmark in 1864-Prussia/Austria win and divide territories (leading to future strife)-Prussia gets control of Schleswig-Austria gets control of Holstein

  • The Seven Weeks War-Between Austria and Prussia over the Schleswig and Holstein territories-Bismarck prepares for war by stripping Austria of its potential alliesGives aid to Russia to help against Polish rebels in 1863Promises France compensation for its neutralitySupports Italy in its claim to the Austrian territory of Venetia-Gains public support for his actions when Austria sided with the Duke of Augestenburg, who claimed tithe to Schleswig and Holstein-To prevent this alliance Bismarck orders troops into Holstein

  • -In response to this, Austria asks German Confederation to take military action against Prussia for their invasion and Bismarck declares war with Austria-War begins June 15, 1866 and, 7 weeks later, is over- - Prussia winsPurpose of the war was to separate Austria from GermanyPrussians win so quickly because of the breach loading rifle (invented in 1841 by Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse) they had which enabled them to lie down and reloadAustrians still used Muzzle loaders (so they had to stand up to reload)

  • Treaty of Prauge-Ends Seven Weeks War-Bismarck goes easy on Austria (why?)-Treaty made Bismarck a hero amongst the German NationalistsWhat it did: Dissolved German Confederation

    Gave Holstein to Prussia

    Created a new organization of Germany w/o Austria (called the North German Confederation

  • The North German Confederation-Established in 1867

    -Each state could manage their own affairs

    -Foreign policy and defense was put in the hands of the Prussians

    -Legislative authority-Federal Council of Representatives-elected by universal male suffrage

  • The Franco-Prussian War-Southern German states remained outside of the confederation-Napoleon III doesnt want a unified Germany unless France receives territory (for neutrality in 7 weeks war)-Bismarck wants to go to war with France, but has to lure them into it for public sentiment reasons-in 1868 a revolution in Spain overthrew their queen and Prince Leopold (a cousin of William I) was offered the throne-France fears a Spanish/Prussian alliance, so demands promise from William that the Spanish throne will never be occupied by someone with Prussian ties

  • -William I is vacationing and meets with the French ambassador, to which he refuses the offer-William writes a telegram to Bismarck detailing the meeting with French ambassador -Bismarck alters the telegram to make it seem as if William I was insulting the French and leaks it to the press-French take exception to the insult and Napoleon III declares war on Prussia-Fighting begins on July 19, 1870-Southern Germany allies with Prussia-Prussia wins within a few weeks

  • Bismarck and the Church-Kulturkampf (culture war between church and state)

    Catholics organized politically to counter prominent Protestants

    Bismarck said Catholics were Anti-Nation

    1870 Rome- Papal Infallibility-doctrine in which the pope, when speaking on matters of faith and morals, is free from error

  • -Bismarck says the Jesuits were working to destroy the empire

    -expels Jesuits in 1872

    -Passed many laws to destroy the Catholic influence in Germany(Catholic bishops lost power, Catholic weddings not valid unless performed by a Protestant or secular official)

    Pope Pius IX declared laws invalid and broke diplomatic ties with Germany

    Bismarcks repressive measures strengthened the Catholic cause

  • -1877 The Center Party (Catholic Party) gained more seats

    -The Junkers (conservatives) begin to oppose Bismarck

    -Socialism on the rise in Germany, Bismarck needs to make peace with the Catholics

    -1878 Pope Pius IX dies and new pope makes peace with Germany

    -1881-Most of laws repealed (Kulturkampf over)

  • Socialism in GermanyPoor wages and long days make socialism attractive to Germans

    Ferdinand LaSalle-1863 founds Universal German Workingmans Association he was a disciple of Marx Differed in that he didnt teach revolutionLectured on the plight of workers1864 killed in a duel

    1875 his workers party grew into the Social Democratic Party-a major political force

  • Bismarck and Socialism-Socialism was a threat to the empire

    -1878 Bismarck banned all Socialist gatherings and publications

    -Changes policies to show that Govt has the answers, not socialism, by passing several laws-sickness insurance law- compensation for missing work-1889-Old Age Insurance Law- retirement

    -Socialism party still popular- Win 35 seats in 1890 elections

    - Anti-socialist laws are removed

  • The Fall of BismarckIn 1888 William I dies, eventually having William II take over William II is 29, Conservative, Favored militarism, and the absolute authority of the Emperor

    Leads to conflict with Bismarck Bismarck liked to get his way through threatening to resign with William I

    In 1890 he offered his resignation as a bluff and the Kaiser accepted it