feed additives for livestock and poultry

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Dr. Pankaj Kumar Singh Dr. Pankaj Kumar Singh Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Department of Animal Department of Animal Nutrition Nutrition Bihar Veterinary College, Patna, Bihar, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna, Bihar, India India E-mail: [email protected] E-mail: [email protected] FEED ADDITIVES FOR LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY

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Page 1: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Dr. Pankaj Kumar SinghDr. Pankaj Kumar SinghAssistant ProfessorAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Animal Department of Animal

NutritionNutritionBihar Veterinary College, Patna, Bihar, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna, Bihar,

IndiaIndiaE-mail: [email protected]: [email protected]

FEED ADDITIVES FOR LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY

Page 2: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

IntroductionIntroductionThe production of food by livestock results from The production of food by livestock results from combined effect of combined effect of

genetic capacitygenetic capacity feed quality andfeed quality and efficiency of feed conversionefficiency of feed conversion

Production and its efficiency can be improved Production and its efficiency can be improved by minimizing costs incurred during digestion by minimizing costs incurred during digestion and metabolism and metabolism There is also urgent need of controlling the There is also urgent need of controlling the negative impacts of pollutants from animal negative impacts of pollutants from animal agricultureagriculture

Page 3: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Feed additives are commonly described as non-Feed additives are commonly described as non-nutrient substances that accelerates growth, nutrient substances that accelerates growth, efficiency of feed utilization, or beneficial for efficiency of feed utilization, or beneficial for health, or metabolism of the animal health, or metabolism of the animal Range of additives used in the animal production Range of additives used in the animal production industry is very broadindustry is very broad They are growth promoters, disease preventing They are growth promoters, disease preventing agents and auxiliary substancesagents and auxiliary substancesThough not essential from the stand point of Though not essential from the stand point of nutrition, they play a role in improving nutrition, they play a role in improving palatability, physical characteristics and palatability, physical characteristics and preventing rancidity of feedpreventing rancidity of feedFeed additives are used in the diets in very small Feed additives are used in the diets in very small quantities and beneficial effect of the most of the quantities and beneficial effect of the most of the feed additive is more in young animals feed additive is more in young animals

Page 4: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Growth promoters Disease preventing agents

Supplements/Vitamins

Auxiliary substances

I. Chemical (1) Ionophores

1. Antibiotics 1.Organic trace elements 1.Plant extract/herbal products

2. Coccidiostats 2.Synthetic vitamins 2. Antioxidants

(2) Antibiotics 3. Mould inhibitors 3.Synthetic amino acids (3)Flavouringagents/pigmentation compounds

(3) Arsenicals 4.Non protein N (4) Emulsifiers

(4)Prebiotics/oligo -saccharides

5.Branched chain VFA (5)Hormones and B- agonists

(5) Buffers (6) Preservatives

(6)Defaunating agents (7) Pellet binders

(7)Organic acids/ Feed acidifiers

(8)Adsorbents

II. Biological (1) Probiotics

(9)Methane inhibitors

(2) Enzymes

Broad classification of feed additivesBroad classification of feed additives

Page 5: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

AntibioticsAntibiotics

Antibiotic is a product of microbial origin Antibiotic is a product of microbial origin capable of controlling the multiplication of capable of controlling the multiplication of another microorganism either through another microorganism either through killing or inhibiting further multiplicationkilling or inhibiting further multiplication

Page 6: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Non-Ionophore AntibioticsNon-Ionophore AntibioticsMetabolic effect Metabolic effect

thinning of the gut wall associated with changes in ultra structure thinning of the gut wall associated with changes in ultra structure and enzyme activities of epithelial cells and enzyme activities of epithelial cells

Hence, enhances nutrient absorption and lower the metabolic Hence, enhances nutrient absorption and lower the metabolic energy cost energy cost Nutrient sparing effectNutrient sparing effect

The antibiotics alter the bacterial population resulting in The antibiotics alter the bacterial population resulting in conservation of nutrientsconservation of nutrients

Control of sub clinical diseaseControl of sub clinical disease Disease free animals do not respond to antibiotic feedingDisease free animals do not respond to antibiotic feeding Growth promotion partly attributable to disease preventionGrowth promotion partly attributable to disease prevention

Modification of ruminal fermentationModification of ruminal fermentation The antibiotics alter rumen microbial population to improve The antibiotics alter rumen microbial population to improve

fermentation efficiency. fermentation efficiency.

Page 7: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Non ionophore antibiotics used alone or in combination in ruminants

Antibiotics Beef production

Dairy cows Calves Sheep/goat

Avoparcin F, G F, G - F, G

Bacitracin L - - -

Zinc Bacitracin F, G, M. M, - -

Chlorletracyclin F, G, L, M M F, G, M F, G, M

Flavomycin F, G - - -

Neomycin - - M -

Oxytetracyclin B, F, G, L, M B, M F, G, M F, G, M

Spiramycin - - M -

Tylosin L - - -

Virginiamycin F, G M - -

B-Bloat preventionB-Bloat prevention F- Feed efficiency G- Growth promotionF- Feed efficiency G- Growth promotion L- Liver abscess control M- Medicinal L- Liver abscess control M- Medicinal

Page 8: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Effect of antimicrobial feed additives on ruminal metabolic reactions

Feed additives Fibre degradat

ion

VFA Lactate product

ion

Methane production

Amino-N degradation

Ammonia concentrat

ion

Total A/P ratio

Avoparcin 0 0 D D D D DBacitracin D D 0 D D D DChlortetracycline D D I I D D DFlavomycin I 0 0 0 0 0 0Neomycin ND 0 0 ND ND ND 0Oxytetracycline D D I 0 ND ND 0Spiramycin ND D I ND ND ND NDTylosin D D I D ND ND NDVirginiamycin ND D D D D 0 D

D, decrease; I, increase; 0, no effect; ND not determiDed; A, acetate; P, propionate

Page 9: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Ionophore AntibioticsIonophore Antibiotics compounds possessing the ability to form compounds possessing the ability to form lipid soluble complexes with cat ions and lipid soluble complexes with cat ions and mediate their transport across lipid barriersmediate their transport across lipid barrierscarboxylic ionophores-form electrically carboxylic ionophores-form electrically neutral complexes with mono or divalent neutral complexes with mono or divalent cat ions and catalyse electrically silent cat ions and catalyse electrically silent exchanges of cat ions for protons or other exchanges of cat ions for protons or other cat ions across a variety of biological cat ions across a variety of biological membranes membranes

Page 10: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Ionophore AntibioticsIonophore Antibiotics

Mode of actionMode of actionIncreased production of propionate and Increased production of propionate and decreased production of methane resulting in decreased production of methane resulting in increased efficiency of energy metabolismincreased efficiency of energy metabolism. . Decreased protein degradation and Decreased protein degradation and deamination of amino acids resulting in the deamination of amino acids resulting in the improvement of nitrogen metabolism in the improvement of nitrogen metabolism in the rumenrumenDecreased lactic acid production and foam Decreased lactic acid production and foam formation in the rumen leading to reduction formation in the rumen leading to reduction of ruminal disordersof ruminal disorders

Page 11: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Ionophores are generally bacteriostatic not bactericidal Ionophores are generally bacteriostatic not bactericidal Highly effective against gram +ve bacteria but exhibit little or Highly effective against gram +ve bacteria but exhibit little or no activity against gram negative bacteria no activity against gram negative bacteria Gram negative bacteria possess an outer membrane that Gram negative bacteria possess an outer membrane that contains protein channels (porins) with a size exclusion limit of contains protein channels (porins) with a size exclusion limit of approximately 600 DA (Ionophores >600 DA), approximately 600 DA (Ionophores >600 DA), Gram +ve bacteria do not have an outer membrane and Gram +ve bacteria do not have an outer membrane and hence are much more susceptible to the action of Ionophores. hence are much more susceptible to the action of Ionophores. Ruminal bacteria that produce Lactic acid, butyric acid, formic Ruminal bacteria that produce Lactic acid, butyric acid, formic acid and succinic acid are susceptible andacid and succinic acid are susceptible and Bacteria that produce succinic acid and propionic acid are Bacteria that produce succinic acid and propionic acid are resistant to ionophore antibiotics resistant to ionophore antibiotics

Page 12: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

LimitationsLimitations methanogens adapt to ionophores after methanogens adapt to ionophores after prolonged exposureprolonged exposurefeeding ionophores may affect the feeding ionophores may affect the absorption and retention of certain absorption and retention of certain minerals especially magnesiumminerals especially magnesium As ionophores are lipophilic, inclusion of As ionophores are lipophilic, inclusion of fat in the diet may alter ruminal distribution fat in the diet may alter ruminal distribution and/or access of ionophores to and/or access of ionophores to methanogenic microbes methanogenic microbes

Page 13: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

ArsenicalsArsenicalsArsenic compounds, namely arsanilic acid, Arsenic compounds, namely arsanilic acid, sodium arsanilate and 3 -nitro-hydroxyphenyl sodium arsanilate and 3 -nitro-hydroxyphenyl arsenic acid are also used as growth inhibitors arsenic acid are also used as growth inhibitors for pathogenic organism and to restore for pathogenic organism and to restore conditions of recovering animals conditions of recovering animals The amount of arsenic retained in the tissues is The amount of arsenic retained in the tissues is very lowvery lowIt is desirable to discontinue arsenicals from the It is desirable to discontinue arsenicals from the diet at least 5 days before slaughterdiet at least 5 days before slaughterArsenicals are added @ 50-70 g/tone of feedArsenicals are added @ 50-70 g/tone of feed

Page 14: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Buffering compoundsBuffering compoundsBuffers are Buffers are mixtures of weak acids and their mixtures of weak acids and their conjugate basesconjugate bases When present in aqueous solution, buffers When present in aqueous solution, buffers should resist changes in pH upon addition of should resist changes in pH upon addition of acid or basacid or basee In ruminant nutrition, the term buffer is applied In ruminant nutrition, the term buffer is applied loosely to include oxides or hydroxides that loosely to include oxides or hydroxides that neutralize acids present in feed stuffs or acids neutralize acids present in feed stuffs or acids produced during ruminal fermentationproduced during ruminal fermentation A more appropriate term is neutralizing or A more appropriate term is neutralizing or alkalinizing agentsalkalinizing agents

Page 15: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Mechanism of actionMechanism of action

Buffer modify ruminal fermentation byBuffer modify ruminal fermentation by (I) (I) increasing or resisting change in ruminal pH increasing or resisting change in ruminal pH and and (2)Increasing fractional outflow rate through (2)Increasing fractional outflow rate through the reticulo omasal orifice ( ruminal dilution the reticulo omasal orifice ( ruminal dilution rate)rate)

The increase in fluid dilution rate is due to The increase in fluid dilution rate is due to increased osmolarity which increases both water increased osmolarity which increases both water intake and influx through the ruminal wallintake and influx through the ruminal wall

Page 16: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Buffers like sodium bicarbonate and magnesium oxide are Buffers like sodium bicarbonate and magnesium oxide are used routinely in dairy cattle, to counteract the depression in used routinely in dairy cattle, to counteract the depression in milk fat synthesis due to low ruminal pH and reducedmilk fat synthesis due to low ruminal pH and reduced acetate/propionate ratio induced by a low roughage and high acetate/propionate ratio induced by a low roughage and high grain dietgrain diet Supplements of sodium bicarbonate should be 0.6 to 0.8 Supplements of sodium bicarbonate should be 0.6 to 0.8 percent of a total mixed diet and 1.2 to 1.6 percent of a percent of a total mixed diet and 1.2 to 1.6 percent of a concentrate mixtureconcentrate mixture magnesium oxide should be added @ 0.2 to 0.4 per cent of magnesium oxide should be added @ 0.2 to 0.4 per cent of total mixed diet or 0.4 to 0.6 percent of a concentrate total mixed diet or 0.4 to 0.6 percent of a concentrate mixture. mixture. When feeding a combination of two, 2 to 3 parts NaHCO3 When feeding a combination of two, 2 to 3 parts NaHCO3 should be mixed with one part Mg O. should be mixed with one part Mg O. Feeding large amounts of these mineral salts may depress Feeding large amounts of these mineral salts may depress feed intakefeed intake

Page 17: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

AntioxidantsAntioxidants

Antioxidants are chemical compounds which have the Antioxidants are chemical compounds which have the capacity of preventing oxidation of substance by taking up capacity of preventing oxidation of substance by taking up oxygenoxygen High fat vegetable products (oils/fat), tallow, lard, fish meal and High fat vegetable products (oils/fat), tallow, lard, fish meal and poultry by product meal are more prone to oxidative rancidity.poultry by product meal are more prone to oxidative rancidity. This imparts off flavours which reduces voluntary feed intake This imparts off flavours which reduces voluntary feed intake and bioavailability of amino acids and fat soluble vitamins like and bioavailability of amino acids and fat soluble vitamins like vitamin A and vitamin E.vitamin A and vitamin E. Commonly used antioxidants are butylated hydroxyl anisole Commonly used antioxidants are butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ethoxyquin. The (BHA), butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ethoxyquin. The natural antioxidants include vitamin E, vitamin C and natural antioxidants include vitamin E, vitamin C and rosemary.rosemary. These are added directly into the mixed feed, feed ingredients These are added directly into the mixed feed, feed ingredients and vitamin premixes @125 to 200g/tonne of feed.and vitamin premixes @125 to 200g/tonne of feed. Synthetic antioxidants are comparatively cheaper and long Synthetic antioxidants are comparatively cheaper and long lasting.lasting.

Page 18: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Prebiotics/OligosaccharidesPrebiotics/Oligosaccharides

Non digestive feed ingredients Non digestive feed ingredients selectively stimulate growth and/or selectively stimulate growth and/or activity of limited number of bacterial activity of limited number of bacterial species already resident in the digestive species already resident in the digestive tract andtract and thus improves host healththus improves host health

Page 19: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

The oligosaccharides are water soluble carbohydrates The oligosaccharides are water soluble carbohydrates consisting of 2 to 10 monomeric unitsconsisting of 2 to 10 monomeric unitsThey resist attack by the digestive enzymes of humans They resist attack by the digestive enzymes of humans and animals and therefore not metabolized directly by the and animals and therefore not metabolized directly by the host host They reach colon directly and interact with the microbial They reach colon directly and interact with the microbial floraflora act as specific growth substrates and alter cell adhesion act as specific growth substrates and alter cell adhesion and immuno modulationand immuno modulationWhen used in mixed amounts in feed (below 1%) When used in mixed amounts in feed (below 1%) oligosaccharides increases weight gain and improves oligosaccharides increases weight gain and improves health statushealth statusEffects vary as per type of oligosaccharide employed, Effects vary as per type of oligosaccharide employed, the class of animal, its age, animal species and the class of animal, its age, animal species and management conditionsmanagement conditionsA wide variety of oligosaccharides (fructo-, gluco- and A wide variety of oligosaccharides (fructo-, gluco- and glacto-oligosacchrides) is commercially available as feed glacto-oligosacchrides) is commercially available as feed additivesadditives

Page 20: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES Most are natural products, made of very simple sugars, Most are natural products, made of very simple sugars,

without any antigenic capacitywithout any antigenic capacity They do not present side effect or accumulate in animal They do not present side effect or accumulate in animal

tissuestissues They are resistant to change in pH or temperatureThey are resistant to change in pH or temperature They do not have viability problems like probiotics and They do not have viability problems like probiotics and

enzymes.enzymes.

To date, the use of oligosaccharides has been limited due to the difficulty To date, the use of oligosaccharides has been limited due to the difficulty in obtaining clearly reproducible resultsin obtaining clearly reproducible results

Page 21: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Plant extractsPlant extractsSarsaponin, a naturally occurring steroid saponin Sarsaponin, a naturally occurring steroid saponin contained in contained in yucca schidigerayucca schidigera plant extract is associated plant extract is associated with NPN metabolism through slowing urea hydrolysis with NPN metabolism through slowing urea hydrolysis Beneficial effect of Sarsaponin (66 mg/kg) was similar to Beneficial effect of Sarsaponin (66 mg/kg) was similar to monensin feeding but at lower magnitudemonensin feeding but at lower magnitude Sarsaponin enhanced the total dry matter, fiber and cell Sarsaponin enhanced the total dry matter, fiber and cell content digestibility on grass based (80%) diets.content digestibility on grass based (80%) diets. The beneficial effect was attributed to inhibition of The beneficial effect was attributed to inhibition of selected gut microbes due to the antimicrobial selected gut microbes due to the antimicrobial compound ,3 -butanol extractable -5-beta-01 saponincompound ,3 -butanol extractable -5-beta-01 saponin.. A crude methanol extract of the fruit of A crude methanol extract of the fruit of Sapindus rarakSapindus rarak (1 mg/kg) in combination with some microbial growth (1 mg/kg) in combination with some microbial growth factors were most effective in improving rumen factors were most effective in improving rumen digestibility of rice straw.digestibility of rice straw.

Page 22: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Herbal productsHerbal productsHerb is defined as a flowering plant whose stem above Herb is defined as a flowering plant whose stem above ground does not become woody or persistent and ground does not become woody or persistent and which is having medicinal valuewhich is having medicinal valueBeing component of nature , herbs and their Being component of nature , herbs and their preparations are considered safe ,cost effective and preparations are considered safe ,cost effective and environment friendly and with no side effectsenvironment friendly and with no side effectsBeneficial effect of herbs in farm animals may arise Beneficial effect of herbs in farm animals may arise from activation of feed intake and secretion of from activation of feed intake and secretion of digestive juices ,immune stimulation, antibacterial, digestive juices ,immune stimulation, antibacterial, coccidiostatic ,anthelmintic,antiviral or anti-coccidiostatic ,anthelmintic,antiviral or anti-inflammatory activity inflammatory activity Most of these belong to the classes of isoprene Most of these belong to the classes of isoprene derivatives,flavanoids and glucosinolatesderivatives,flavanoids and glucosinolates They act as either antibiotics or as antioxidantsThey act as either antibiotics or as antioxidants

Page 23: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Often the desired activity of herb is not constantOften the desired activity of herb is not constant Conflicting results may arise from natural Conflicting results may arise from natural variability of herbs and their environmental variability of herbs and their environmental growth conditionsgrowth conditions The major thrusts of commercially available The major thrusts of commercially available formulations are concentrated as liver formulations are concentrated as liver correctives, immuno modulators, antistress correctives, immuno modulators, antistress agents, antibacterial and growth promotersagents, antibacterial and growth promoters Pioneers in herbal formulations in India Pioneers in herbal formulations in India marketing herbal products are M/S.Indian marketing herbal products are M/S.Indian Herbs,M/s Dabur Ayurvet Ltd.,M/s Himalayan Herbs,M/s Dabur Ayurvet Ltd.,M/s Himalayan Drug Co., M/s TTK Pharma etc.Drug Co., M/s TTK Pharma etc.

Page 24: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

EnzymesEnzymesThe fibrolytic enzymes such as cellulase, xylanase, and b-The fibrolytic enzymes such as cellulase, xylanase, and b-gluconase increase the nutrient utilization efficiency in gluconase increase the nutrient utilization efficiency in poultry and non ruminant animals poultry and non ruminant animals Secondly some enzymes eliminate toxic effects of feed Secondly some enzymes eliminate toxic effects of feed that may otherwise hinder the nutrient absorptionthat may otherwise hinder the nutrient absorption Where as, in ruminants, rumen microbes produce Where as, in ruminants, rumen microbes produce sufficient quantity of these enzymes sufficient quantity of these enzymes Earlier it was thought that because exogenous enzymes Earlier it was thought that because exogenous enzymes are soluble and due to high proteolytic activity in the are soluble and due to high proteolytic activity in the rumen, they cannot remain activerumen, they cannot remain active Exogenous polysaccharide degrading enzymes are stable Exogenous polysaccharide degrading enzymes are stable in the rumen and may pass to lower tract and hence can in the rumen and may pass to lower tract and hence can improve the nutrient utilization by animalsimprove the nutrient utilization by animals From a number of studies it is apparent that enzymes From a number of studies it is apparent that enzymes substantially improve feed digestibility and animal substantially improve feed digestibility and animal performanceperformance

Page 25: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Methane inhibitorsMethane inhibitors

Methane produced during anaerobic fermentation Methane produced during anaerobic fermentation in the rumen represents an energy loss to the in the rumen represents an energy loss to the host animal as well as contributing to emissions of host animal as well as contributing to emissions of green house gases to the environmentgreen house gases to the environment Several compounds including chlorinated Several compounds including chlorinated methane analogues, puromellitic dilmide, methane analogues, puromellitic dilmide, trichloroethyl adipate and bromoethane sulfonic trichloroethyl adipate and bromoethane sulfonic acid are toxic to methanogensacid are toxic to methanogensHowever, ruminal microbial populations However, ruminal microbial populations in vivoin vivo have been found to adapt to or degrade many of have been found to adapt to or degrade many of these compounds and favourable effects on these compounds and favourable effects on animal performance have rarely been observedanimal performance have rarely been observed

Page 26: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

HormonesHormones Hormones are substances produced by endocrine glands that activate Hormones are substances produced by endocrine glands that activate specifically the target organs to produce the desired resultspecifically the target organs to produce the desired resultSynthesized compounds that produce the same response as those from Synthesized compounds that produce the same response as those from naturally produced hormones can be used as feed additive to promote naturally produced hormones can be used as feed additive to promote animal growthanimal growthThey are used in order to bring about desirable changes in the nature and They are used in order to bring about desirable changes in the nature and rate of metabolism for efficient productivityrate of metabolism for efficient productivityThey can be grouped into anabolic and catabolic hormones They can be grouped into anabolic and catabolic hormones The anabolics are growth hormone and thyroxine, which are being used for The anabolics are growth hormone and thyroxine, which are being used for increasing animal productivity either through growth or egg or milk increasing animal productivity either through growth or egg or milk productionproduction

((e.g.) bovine somototropin – for increasing milk productione.g.) bovine somototropin – for increasing milk production Iodinated casein – for increase egg productionIodinated casein – for increase egg productionThe catabolics, estrogen and glucocarticoids ,increase muscle and bone The catabolics, estrogen and glucocarticoids ,increase muscle and bone formation at the expense of fat deposition there by improving body finishformation at the expense of fat deposition there by improving body finish The use of hormones has aroused much public concern due to the residue The use of hormones has aroused much public concern due to the residue present in animal productspresent in animal productsSeveral countries banned the use of these hormonal preparationsSeveral countries banned the use of these hormonal preparations

Page 27: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Branched chain fatty acids and N valeric acidBranched chain fatty acids and N valeric acid

The branched chain fatty acids are iso butyric, 2- The branched chain fatty acids are iso butyric, 2- methyl butyric and isovaleric and N valeric acids methyl butyric and isovaleric and N valeric acids ( Isoacids) ( Isoacids) They are absolutely required for growth of several They are absolutely required for growth of several rumen bacterial species, particularly the fibrolytic rumen bacterial species, particularly the fibrolytic organismsorganisms Incubation of mixed rumen bacteria and isolated plant Incubation of mixed rumen bacteria and isolated plant cell walls or intact forages with isoacids resulted in cell walls or intact forages with isoacids resulted in increased cell wall digestibility and ammonia assimilationincreased cell wall digestibility and ammonia assimilation In high yielding cows, supplementation with isoacids In high yielding cows, supplementation with isoacids seems to increase milk productionseems to increase milk productionHowever, the response was not consistent.However, the response was not consistent.

Page 28: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

AdsorbentsAdsorbentsThese are compounds that are not absorbed from the These are compounds that are not absorbed from the GIT and, have the ability to bind physically with toxic GIT and, have the ability to bind physically with toxic substances thus preventing their absorptionsubstances thus preventing their absorption The use of adsorbents such as activated charcoal and The use of adsorbents such as activated charcoal and silicates have been extensively studied, in livestock silicates have been extensively studied, in livestock exposed to dietary aflatoxinsexposed to dietary aflatoxins Activated charcoal is usually administered at 20-120 Activated charcoal is usually administered at 20-120 mg/kg to domestic animalsmg/kg to domestic animalsIt is mainly used to reduce lead and pesticide toxicityIt is mainly used to reduce lead and pesticide toxicity Several substances like alumino-silicates, bentonite, Several substances like alumino-silicates, bentonite, silicon, zeolites etc. have been found beneficial in silicon, zeolites etc. have been found beneficial in ameliorating or minimizing the toxic effects of mycotoxinsameliorating or minimizing the toxic effects of mycotoxins

Page 29: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Chelated minerals/Organic mineralsChelated minerals/Organic minerals

Bioavailability of inorganic minerals varies greatly Bioavailability of inorganic minerals varies greatly depending upon their solubility and ionization at depending upon their solubility and ionization at the site of absorptionthe site of absorptionThe organic or chelated forms of minerals are The organic or chelated forms of minerals are generally more bioavailable than their generally more bioavailable than their counterpartscounterpartsHowever, scanty work has been done in India on However, scanty work has been done in India on use of chelated mineralsuse of chelated minerals Moreover, In India majority of animals do not Moreover, In India majority of animals do not receive even low cost common saltreceive even low cost common saltHence, inorganic or chelated mineral Hence, inorganic or chelated mineral supplementation is beyond their reachsupplementation is beyond their reach

Page 30: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Pathogen inhibitors/chemical preservativesPathogen inhibitors/chemical preservatives

Various acids in particular, propionic acid, formic Various acids in particular, propionic acid, formic acid and lactic acid can be used either as acid and lactic acid can be used either as preservatives for high moisture feed ingredients preservatives for high moisture feed ingredients or to inhibit the pathogenic microorganisms or to inhibit the pathogenic microorganisms present in the mixed feedpresent in the mixed feedThe propionic acid products were recommended The propionic acid products were recommended at about 3 kg/tonne of feed at about 3 kg/tonne of feed Lactic acid may also be used to control or Lactic acid may also be used to control or prevent diarrohea associated with some prevent diarrohea associated with some bacterial infection by lowering the pH which bacterial infection by lowering the pH which inhibits their multiplication inhibits their multiplication

Page 31: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Organic acidsOrganic acids

Some organic acids specially malic acid and Some organic acids specially malic acid and fumaric acid were found to be potent agent for fumaric acid were found to be potent agent for rumen manipulationrumen manipulationmalate stimulates lactate utilization by malate stimulates lactate utilization by selenomonas ruminantiumselenomonas ruminantium Malate was more effective in lactate utilization Malate was more effective in lactate utilization than fumarate or aspartatethan fumarate or aspartateForages rich in malate (Lucerne, Bermuda Forages rich in malate (Lucerne, Bermuda grass) may be used for rumen manipulationgrass) may be used for rumen manipulation Fumarate was also found to be beneficial for Fumarate was also found to be beneficial for fibre rich dietsfibre rich diets

Page 32: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Flavouring agents and pigmentation Flavouring agents and pigmentation compoundscompounds

Flavouring agents are used to enhance the Flavouring agents are used to enhance the palatability of feeds especially, fish meal and palatability of feeds especially, fish meal and other vegetable protein meals in the diet of other vegetable protein meals in the diet of (flavour sensitive) pet animals(flavour sensitive) pet animals Pigmentation compounds are used to satisfy Pigmentation compounds are used to satisfy consumer preferenceconsumer preferenceXanthophylls present in yellow maize and Xanthophylls present in yellow maize and leucerne meal are used to produce deep yellow leucerne meal are used to produce deep yellow pigmentation in body and in egg yolkpigmentation in body and in egg yolk

Page 33: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Pellet bindersPellet binders

In pelleting industries binders like In pelleting industries binders like bentonite, lignin sulfonate, hemicellulose, bentonite, lignin sulfonate, hemicellulose, molasses and guar meal are used for molasses and guar meal are used for increasing the texture and firmness of increasing the texture and firmness of pelleted feeding stuffpelleted feeding stuff

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conclusionsconclusions Livestock production activity in India has become vary Livestock production activity in India has become vary intensive and highly competitiveintensive and highly competitiveTherefore, use of chemical additives is obligatory to Therefore, use of chemical additives is obligatory to improve production performance and for better economic improve production performance and for better economic returnsreturnsHowever, various kinds of drugs, herbal products, However, various kinds of drugs, herbal products, neutraceuticals, and fermentation products are being neutraceuticals, and fermentation products are being sold for use with the claim that they will improve growth, sold for use with the claim that they will improve growth, production, feed conversion efficiency, health and production, feed conversion efficiency, health and immunityimmunityMany of these claims are not supported by scientific Many of these claims are not supported by scientific evidenceevidenceSo efforts should be made to regulate feed additive So efforts should be made to regulate feed additive market in the countrymarket in the country

Page 35: Feed additives for livestock and poultry

Thank youThank you