nutrigenomics in livestock and poultry
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APPLICATION OF NUTRIGENOMICS IN LIVSTOCK AND POULTRY
Introduction Over the last decade, advances in the biochemical technologies available for examining functional genomics have provided a number of new molecular tools for evaluating responses to nutritional strategies. These tools are largely based on an understanding of the expression and control of specific genes and gene products and have lead to the development of the sciences associated with nutrigenomics (Swanson et al., 2003). Bioactive food compounds can interact with genes affecting transcription factors, protein expression and metabolite production. The study of how genes and gene products interact with dietary chemicals to alter phenotype and conversely, how genes and their products metabolize nutrients is called Nutritional genomics or Nutrigenomics (Kaput et al., 2005). In the post genomic era, many new molecular tools for evaluating the factors influencing fertilityand reproductive performance in Livestock and Poultry came into focus. Currently, oligo-based and cDNA microarray techniques make it possible to understand many of the factors controlling the regulation of gene transcription and globally evaluate gene expression profiles by looking at the relative
abundance of gene-specific mRNA in tissues. These techniques provide information on reproductive, developmental and performance characteristics in livestock (Dawson, 2006). The Nutritional genomic area includes two parts: 1) Nutrigenomics that is the study of interaction between dietary components and the genome, and the regulating changes in proteins and other metabolism. 2) Nutrigenetics that identify the response to dietary components with regard to genetic differences. The new technologies like, Genomics is a study of the functions and interactions of all genes in the genome. Proteomics is measures the changes in the whole proteome, such as post-translational modifications. Metabolomics is measures the changes in the entire metabolome, which is generally defined as metabolites with molecular weights less than 2000 Daltons, in a dose-dependent manner for a particular nutrient or drug. Bioinformatics are now making their ways to solve the intervening puzzle between nutrient and genes (Subbiah et al.,2007). Nutrient gene interaction Genes are turned on and off according to metabolic signals that the nucleus receives from internal factors, e.g. hormones, and external factors, e.g. nutrients, which are among the most
influential of environmental stimuli. Numerous dietary components can alter genetic events, and thereby influence health. In addition to the essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, calcium, zinc, selenium, and vitamin A, C and E, there is a variety of nonessential bioactive components that seem to significantly influence health. These essential and nonessential bioactive food components are known to modify a number of cellular processes associated with health and disease prevention, including carcinogen metabolism, hormonal balance, cell signaling, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Often bioactive food components will modify several processes simultaneously (Trrnen et al., 2006). The complex mixture of natural substances that supplies both energy and building blocks to develop and sustain organism nutrients has variety of biological activity: 1. Antioxidants (act as a free radical scavengers) 2. Nutritional hormone (potent signaling molecules) 3. Phytochemicals (modulator for animal health and production) The essential nutrients imbalance of macronutrients in sub optimal level or even toxic concentration of certain feeds may cause many diseases and disorders. Gene expression profiling Microarray technology is a powerful tool for the global evaluation of gene expression profiles in tissues and for understanding many of the factors controlling the regulation of gene transcription. This technique not only provides a considerable amount of information on markers and a predictive factor that may be potentially characterize a specific clinical picture, but also promises new applications for therapy (Masotti et al., 2010). The use microarray evaluating nutritional strategies and nutrition effect by individual gene marker have variable response in individual animal receiving same level of feeds and also possible to compare gene expression patterns in group of animals. It is also to identify specific similarities and differences in nutrient effects across a number of genes. 1) Application of nutrigenomics in ruminants There several application of nutrigenomics in ruminants some of these listed belowa) Improves ruminant health b) Improves production of milk fat
c) Improve fertility and reproductive performance Characteristics of bovine genome The bovine genome is composed of 29 autosomes and two sex chromosomes, and contains approximately three billion nucleic base pairs
(Lewin, 2003). Bovine genome is similar in size to that from other mammals. Mapping strategies have resulted in many complimentary markers that have helped define the structural nature of the genome, and sequencing studies have identified and cataloged well over 300,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in Gene Bank. The Bovine Genome Project was initiated in 2003 and, through an international effort, resulted in the release of the first draft of the complete bovine genome sequence in 2004 (NIH, 2004). Nutritional genomics in ruminants Dietary manipulations and nutritional strategies are key tools for influencing ruminant production. Genetic predisposition and nutritional management requires reproductive performance and fertility in dairy cattle. This is particularly important during the transition period and early lactation, when the animal is particularly sensitive to nutritional imbalances.Byrne, (2005) reported that Nutritional restriction due to intake of poor quality feeds, expression of specific genes associated with protein turnover, cytoskeletal remodeling, and metabolic homeostasis was clearly influenced by diet. Many of these changes in expression could be predicted from observed changes in animal growth and physiology during normal nutrient restriction. Jones et al (2004). Studies entophyte-infected tall fescue on gene expression in luteal tissue of heifers by using rat microarray. He revealed following changes in cell are, 1. Specific differential expression of genes associated with neural functions, 2. Transport function, 3. Cell cycle regulation, 4. Programmed cell death. This clearly indicated that nutrients act on transcriptional level (gene expression) heifers.a) Application of nutrigenomics in ruminant health and nutrition
Dietary manipulations and nutritional strategies are key tools for influencing ruminant production. Nutrition and genetic make-up strongly influences of the reproductive performance of milch animals. This is important during transition period and early lactation, when animal sensitive to nutritional imbalance. Very scares information on diet on expression of genes related to productive and reproductive performance of the livestock. It may possible to begin to understand the
importance of the relationship between individual nutrients and regulation of gene expression. When animal fed with selenium deficiency feeds that cause alteration of protein synthesis at transcriptional level; selenium deficiency adverse effect is enhancement of stress through up regulation of specific genes expression and signalling pathways. Genes controlling protection of oxidative damage, detoxification mechanism these consequences cause alteration of phenotype .The identification of the gene markers related to economically important trait like milk, meat, wool production etc. These traits can be improved by dietary regimens (Kore et al., 2008). b) Nutrigenomics in ruminants for improved milk fat Mammary synthesis of milk fat continues process .This can be regulated by bioactive fatty acids (FAs).The biodegradation theory established that diet induced milk fat depression (MFD)in the diary cow is caused by an inhibition of mammary synthesise of milk fat by specific FAs produced during ruminal biodegradation. The first such shown to affect milk fat synthesis was tran-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and effect has been characterized dose response relationship. During MFD lipogenic capacity and transcription of keys mammary lipogenic gens are co-ordinately down regulated .Result provide strong evidence for sterol response element binding protein -1 (SREBP1)and spot 14 as bio degradation intermediate responsive lipogenic signaling pathway for ruminants and rodents. Rumen derived bioactive FAs regulate milk fat synthesis in ruminants (Bauman et al., 2011). Mach et al (2011) reported that fat is the most variable component in milk of dairy cows, with the amount and composition affected by genetic, physiological and environmental factors .It has been also shown that lipid metabolism in the mammary gland is highly controlled at the level of transcriptome . Trans-10 cis-12 C18:2 FAs produced as intermediates in rumen biohydrogenation of unsaturated FA, reduce transcription of coordinated and concerted genes, including transcriptional regulators such as sterol response element-binding protein-1 (SREPB1), peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor gamma (PPARG) or Spot14 .The effect of specific rumen-derived bioactive FAs on transcription, as well as post-transcriptional and translational modifications in major lipogenic gene networks in the bovine mammary gland, can provide insights for the development of methods to alter milk fat yield and improve its FA profile. c) Application of nutrigenomics in ruminant reproduction and fertility Reproduction performance in cattle and other species of livestock is based on dietary induced changes in specific genes function .It possible to understand relationship between nutrients and regulation of gene expression e.g. study of dietary selenium on gene expression in mice (Rao et al.,
2001).He revealed selenium influences the pattern of protein synthesis in mice regulating specific gene expression at transcriptional levels. Directly demonstrate the effects of nutritional strategies or diets on the expression of genes related to fertility in either male or female animals, it may be possible to begin to understand the importance of the relationship between individual nutrients and the regulation of gene expression. Selenium deficiencies can influence the patterns of protein synthesis in mice by regulating the expression of specific genes at the transcriptional level. Fertility-associated gene expression patterns that are changed by supplementation of mouse diets with sodium selenite, selenomethionine, or selenium yeast (Sel-Plex)a Gene Protein Relative increase in gene expression with dietary inclusion of b Seleno Sodium Selenium methionine Dio1 Iodothyronine deiodinase, type I Glutathione Gpx 1 Gpx peroxidase 1 Glutathione 4.6 none 1.8 3.1 1.2 1.7 3.6 1.4 1.8 4.9 4.1 4.7 2.0-fold selenite 2.8 yeast 2.1 Modulates metabolic activities during implantation and embryonic development Key enzymes in antioxidant systems protecting reproductive systems and embryos Key electron carrier controlling implantation development Key enzyme antioxidant and embryo supporting and Functional Role
3 peroxidase 3 Txn2 Thioredoxin 2 Txnr d1 Thioredoxin reductase 1
controlling embryo development a Data from an unpublished gene expression study of intestinal tissue from mice fed a on selenium (0.01 mgSe/kg) diet, a sodium selenite supplemented diet (1.0 mgSe/kg), a selenomethionine (1.0 mg/kg) or a selenium yeast (Sel-Plex)diet (1.0 mgSe/kg) (Weindruch et al., 2005, personal communication). B Changes in gene expression are provided as significant (p < 0.05) fold changes relative to the expression patterns observed in a selenium deficient control group. NS indicates a non-significant (p > 0.05) change in gene expression Relative to the selenium-deficient control. Genes that was up-regulated by selenium deficiencies are, Stress responses, Cell cycling and growth,
Cell adherence Genes that were down-regulated are Detoxification mechanisms, Selenoprotein production, Oxidative stress protection, Lipid transport. These changes in gene expression can be used outward phenotypic characteristic of selenium deficiencies (Rao et al.,2001).Several selenium sources on gene expression intestinal tract of mice using a basic 23,000 element murine microarray. This is revealed in genes influenced by selenium supplementation. 100 of these can be directly associated with reproductive function (Dawson et al.,2006) direct effect of dietary selenium on gene expression in key reproductive tissue yet to be examined from these data can be used to identify candidate genes that are clearly regulated by various selenium supplementation. These are some more factors regulate reproductive and fertility of ruminants. Role of thyroid in reproduction and fertility Role of oxidative stress in fertility Role thyrodoxin electron carrier systems a)Role of thyroid in reproduction and fertility The thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3) has many functions that can be related to reproductive performance. One of its major roles is to trigger gene transcription, which is important in the developing embryos during growth (Goodridge, 1986). As a result, it plays a critical role in embryo survival and the growth of young animals (Edens and Gowdy, 2004). The importance of this hormone in fertility has been established in studies of ovarian responses in cows with induced hypothyroidism .The delay in the conversion of T4 to T3 has been associated with increased embryonic mortality in poultry and can be expected to have the same effects in other species where strict metabolic regulation of energy metabolism is needed for proper maintenance and development of embryos. b)Role of oxidative stress in fertility Oxidative stress on the reproductive tissues leads to decrease reproductive efficiency and male infertility (shalini and bansal, 2005).when selenium yeast and sodium selenite add in diet in that have major impact on reproductive tissue and sperm quality and embryo development. This will be provide better understanding of dietary selenium on reproductive tissues (Dawson , 2006). c) Role thyrodoxin electron carrier systems
Miranda-Vizuete et al (2004) reported that the thioredoxin electron carrier systems involving many aspects of cell cycling and maintaining antioxidant systems. If regulate the thioredoxin system by diet are key differentiation and morphogenesis in embryonic tissue. Thioredoxin mediates estradiol effect on antioxidants.it influence 1. Early embryo maturity 2. Early embryo viability 3. Embryo implantation 4. Fertility in pig It is possible to regulate selenoprotein (anti-oxidant) by dietary chemicals to improve the fertility of livestock. Microarray analysis will undoubtedly revolutionize our basic understanding of cattle physiology and help new methods of managing animal nutrition and reproduction. 2) Application of Nutrigenomics in equinea. Reduce the frequency and severity disease condition Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP)
Polysaccaride Storage Myopathy (PSSM) Polysaccaride Storage Myopathy (PSSM) Polysaccaride Storage Myopathy (PSSM) Devlopmental Orthopedic Disease (DOD) Other diseases conditions b. Reduce risk of disease susceptibility and deficiency disorderc. Improve fertility and reproductive performance
The national institute of health (NIH) added the horse genome to the list of mammals to undergo whole genome high density sequencing in 2006 (Ramery et al., 2009). Nutrigenomics application in genome wide impact of nutrients on the expression of genes is used to elucidate pathways leading to diseases states, improved health, and enhanced performance. Equine genome will greatly added to analytical power of this technique as it applies understanding and enhancing health and performance in the horse by using microarray in horse variety of application listed below 1. Preliminary molecular signature of normal articular cartilage in immature horse has been established. 2. Microarray containing human cDNAs was used in a study to gain better understanding of gene expression profiles in spermatogenesis and enhanced stallion fertility (Ing et al., 2004).
3. To study gene expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (Heaves) affected horse. 4. This study identified several new genes which strengthened our understanding of this debilitating disease. a) Reduce the frequency and severity disease condition Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP) Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, is a serious condition found primarily in the American Quarter Horse and related breeds. Affected animals are stricken with muscle twitching, weakness and potential collapse soon after work or stress. HYPP attacks can be fatal if the paralysis extends to the respiratory system (Finno et al., 2009). Dietary management can reduce the frequency and severity of HYPP.Dietary prevention includes avoiding high potassium feeds like alfalfa and molasses, feeding several small meals throughout the day, and preventing dehydration. Approximately 56% of halter-bred Quarter horses are affected by HYPP (Tryon et al., 2009). Polysaccaride Storage Myopathy (PSSM) Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (PSSM), aka tying-up or Monday morning disease is a defect in the ability to store glucose from the diet as muscle glycogen. Signs include limb stiffness and awkward gait which can progress to sweating, reluctance to move and brown-colored urine (Finno et al., 2009). This can be prevented by a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. Several commercial formulations are already available 1. Re-Leve by Halloway Feeds, 2. Ultium by Purina, 3. Equi-Jewel from Kentucky Performance Products Alterations to the training schedule may also be beneficial. PSSM horses should be exercised regularly with only gradual increases in intensity (McCue et al., 2008). Devlopmental Orthopedic Disease (DOD) Developmental orthopedic disease has been linked to several locations in the genomes. Rapid growth and excessive feeding of weaning and yearling contribute to this condition and certain breeds are more susceptible to an additional research is needed is prepare tailor diet just meet the condition for optimal growth without developing DOD.Equine genome just recently has been sequenced and homologous arrays are not yet available in future nutrigenomics analysis should yield extremely valuable information on the impact of different dietary regimens, individual nutrients and
physiological process with this information improve both horse health and performance through simplest way by dietary addition. Other diseases Equine SNP chip, an assay that allows us to examine 50,000 genetic markers at once to map the genes that contribute to Equine Metabolic syndrome and Cushings Disease. In the future these loci may be used to identify horses at risk for developing metabolic syndrome under normal management conditions and allow for intervention through a preventative diet before they develop EMS and secondary conditions like laminitis. c) Improve fertility and reproductive performance Selenium is an essential trace element which has been known as key factor for male
and female fertility. None of the study conducted different forms of selenium in reproductive tissue in
horses. Nutrigenomics has opened this area to scrutiny and is generating valuable data which
will be important in a variety of species including horses. Selenium supplementation in horses have not been conducted but poultry has been
completed a recognised model, cross species tissue for the study of reproductive function (Dougherty et al., 2005). Supplementation of the organic selenium or inorganic selenite hens leads to implying
more efficient action of follicle stimulating hormone and enhanced female reproductive performance observed reducing effect seen in selenium deficient hens. 3) Application of nutrigenomics in piga. Improving Meat quality b. Improving reproductive performance
c. Modulation of the Immune Response in Pigd. Increased immunity e. Increased longevity and life span
a) Improving Meat QualityMeat qualities are quantitative traits determined by minor gens during pig growing and fattening. Formation of these characteristics depends on the breeding circumstances of pig .The nutritional (Factor) ingredients influences the pork meat quality. Three most important feed additives are 1. Ractopamine 2. Linoleic acid
3. Vitamin E This three feed additives to enhance the composition and quality of pork. Ractopamine is a -1 agonist,
and exerts its action through the pathway of cyclic adenosine monophosphate by binding to receptors on membrane of muscles fibre cells and adipocytes. Dietary supplementation with the ractopanime during this finishing phase of pigs can improve average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency but decrease carcass fatness (Anderson, 2000) and increase carcass leanness. Maximize the effect of ractopamine, increased lean deposition without increase in feed consumption. Ractopamine can increase in shear force (decrease in tenderness) and ractopamine only contributed minor effects on most meat quality characteristics. CLA is protecting against Reduces Atherosclerosis Many types of cancer in laboratory animals, Improve the pork meat quality in pigs. Reducing subcutaneous fat Increasing intramuscular fat of loin muscle in pigs, Contributes positively to meat palatability Feeding CLA can increase fat hardness and reverse the softening effect of feeding canola oil on subcutaneous fat. (Martin et al. 2008). Pork meat quality formation is affected by breeds, nutritional status, and feeding systems in swine growing and fattening. Skeletal intramuscular fat (IMF) is positively related to the meat quality and it may be one of the most important candidate traits that could be selected to understand the interaction of genes and nutrition supplies during meat quality formation in pigs. It has been shown that IMF along with shear force and drip loss was influenced by one recessive allele (Janss et al., 1997). Pigs carry the special genes who contribute to the certain meat quality. Thus, it is important that selecting the special breed of pigs to identify the major genes that influence the certain meat quality trait. Porcine intramuscular fat is not influenced by genetic background and nutritional status of pigs. The nutritional influence, it is difficult to identify the major genes who affect these quantitative traits (Jing dong Yin and Defa Li, 2009). Effect of vitamin E on meat quality Vitamin E is a potent and lipid-soluble antioxidant, and its primary functions are to maintain and protect biological membranes against lipid peroxidation. Membrane phospholipids oxidation is a major cause of deterioration in meat quality and can affect many quality characteristics such as flavor, color, texture, nutritive value, and safety of the food the inclusion of Vitamin E above dietary requirements can effectively reduce quality defects associated with lipid peroxidation. In pigs,
Vitamin E is generally supplemented at the 200 mg/kg of feed level to improve meat color stability and reduce drip loss during refrigerated storage without any negative effects on growth performance and carcass quality .The beneficial effects on sensory qualities involving freshness, tenderness and juiciness, and on the oxidative stability of pork improved by feeding 600 IU/kg of vitamin E to the pigs at 36 to 70 days before slaughter. Increased the pH value of longissimus muscle, improved color and juiciness of lumbar muscle (Dirinck et al., 1996). b)Maximize fertility and reproduction in pig Advances in swine productivity through genetic selection, management, health and nutritional strategies have resulted in reproductive performance once unimaginable. Feed efficiencies during the growing and finishing phase of production have improved in the range of 25% over the past 15 years (Fremaut, 2003). Sow reproductive efficiency has shown equal improvement and the biological potential of todays modern, hyper prolific genotypes is truly staggering (Close and Cole, 2001). The role of trace minerals in sow and boar reproduction The role of trace minerals in sow and boar reproduction is extremely important and the trace mineral supplementation and research is very limited. Supplementation to working boars with organic trace minerals improves semen concentration and increases the number of doses of extended semen per ejaculate (Mahan et al., 2002) A trace element of interest in the enhancement of reproductive performance in sow nutrition is trivalent chromium supplementation of lactating sows increased reproductive performance and these effects were likely due to the glucose/ insulin relationships and consequential metabolic effects on reproduction. These novel feed ingredients will undoubtedly result in enhanced reproductive productivity under commercial conditions (Lindemann et al. 2004). c) Improves Immune Response in Pig The modulation of the immune response will lead not only to improved overall health but also to improved animal performance. New protein sources that provide additional nutrients to the diet of pigs have also been investigated and shown to improve reproductive performance. Formulating yeast cell proteins (NuPro, Alltech Inc.) into the diet of sows not only improved piglet growth rate, and thus weaning weight, but also reduced the variation in growth and diarrhoea incidence ( Kocher ,2004). d) Reduce the Mortality of pigs Longevity in sow herds is a major focal point as culling rates (mortality and culls) in many situations are approaching 60%.Genetics can play a major role in longevity as indicated heritability
estimates were found to be very low and variable but selection for sow longevity may be possible, difficult to selection decisions for sow longevity must be carried out by pedigrees. Enhancing lifetime sow reproductive performance should be an industry goal indicated genetic differences in populations of sows enable certain lines to have an increased herd life of up to one extra parity. Supplementation of sow diets with Bioplex and Sel-Plex trace minerals, under commercial conditions, was found to increase the number of sows remaining in the herd after parity 4 (Close, 2006). Application of nutrigenomics in poultry a) Feeding i. ii. Improving feed conversion ratio in broiler To improving broiler and breeder performance by using epigenetics
b) Disease resistance i. Improved innate immunity and acquired immunity c) Improving reproduction performance To improve broilers and breeders requires gene marker selection and genomic selection which is useful for accurate selection of breeders this will leads to faster genetic improvement in future. Application of nutrigenomics in poultry is combination of co- evolution of nutrition and genetics breeding programme gives 1. Maximizing response to diet 2. Improve disease resistance 3. Improved innate immunity 4. Maximizing feed efficiency by utilizing the epigenetic to improve broiler and breeder performance. Nutrition, Genetics, Immunogenetics and physiology to work together for improvement poultry in terms of health and production and welfare (Hardiman et al., 2010). Improving feed conversion ratio in broiler Genetic variation of broiler and genetic selection will improve variety of traits to feed conversion .These factor include 1. Increase feed intake and appetite 2. Increased digestibility of feeds 3. Increased absorption of feeds 4. Decreased maintenance energy 5. Increased availability of ME for Gain
6. Decreased rate of protein turnover Feed conversion of commercial flock improved by genetic, management, nutrition factor (Pym et al., 1990). To improving broiler and breeder performance by using epigenetics Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. It refers to functionally relevant modifications to the genome that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Examples of such changes are DNA methylation and histone acetylation, both of which serve to suppress gene expression without altering the sequence of the silenced genes(
Changes in the activity of gene are believed from environmental influences including nutrition in chicks or parents. These changes can result from the alteration the DNA of animals .If epigenetics is proven to work in chicken then possible to design feed ration or feeding programs for chicken that can alter gene expression this will help broiler performance . These changes potentially depress or enhance health of broilers or breeds. When feeding specific nutrients in early life of chicken which in turn affect gene and genes regulations. The phosphorus restriction in young broilers followed by observed enhanced absorption in older broilers is possible evidence for epigenetic changes (Ashwell, 2010). Diseases resistance in poultry Broiler lines from both Cobb and Aviagen independently with either salmonella or campylobacter found in quantitative trait loci on several chromosomes which are associated with disease resistance. Feed additive and feed components have been identified that help improve resistance to disease including variety of bacteria and virus. Nutritional components, which may affect the immunity including; 1. Energy 2. PUFA 3. Vitamin A 4. Vitamin C 5. Vitamin E 6. Lectin 7. Carotenoids and fiberAbove components of feed ingredients which affect the lymphocyte responses in immune system. Nutrient affects the hormones concentration, which may affect the immune responses. Nutritional deficiency may reduce immune response that will leads to susceptibility to specific pathogen. When
required nutrient level of iron and biotin can help restrict pathogen growth proper use of nutrients may modulate the immune responses. It requires appropriate scientific knowledge. Multiple diet acts differently in immunomodulation mechanism might be fed to help protect health of poultry from variety of pathogen. Nutrient level of iron and biotin can help restrict pathogen growth. Proper use of nutrients to modulate the immune system requires appropriate scientific knowledge. Nutrigenomics help to identify genes that affect broiler disorder such as ascites, Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS), and Tibial Dyschroplasia(TD) for use of develop desirable feeds to help reduce or manage these disorders( Klasing et al., 2000).
Improved innate immunity and acquired immunity Nutrigenomics help to produce specific disease resistance to single species of bacteria or virus. Bioactive feed components that interact with the immune systems to reduce susceptibility to diseases (vitamin A,D,E and minerals like zinc and selenium).The innate immunity in chickens in that improvements help to prepare and evolve response of acquired immune system. Impact of nutrition on the innate immune response to infection in poultry 1. There is a need to identify practical alternatives.to antibiotics, such as immunological interventions and therapeutic antimicrobials, to prevent infectious diseases. 2. Dietary bioactive food components that interact with the immune response have considerable potential to reduce susceptibility to infectious diseases. 3. Nutrition alone cannot be the magic bullet to provide for bird health; this will require a coordinated, integrated approach that combines the research from poultry physiology, metabolism, genetics, and immunology. 4. A maximum immune response is not necessarily the optimal response for the bird. Because the activation of an immune response has a cost, a moderately effective immune response may provide the greatest responsiveness to an infection. 5. The innate immune responses can be augmented and natural products, such as feed additives, can potentially be used as antimicrobial compounds. 6. Definitive windows that provide opportune times for the nutrient modulation of innate immunity would be during the first week of life,
responsiveness during this time immediately post hatch, and during the molting process in layer-type chickens. (Kogut,2009). Improve Reproductive and productive performance in chicken Maysa et al (2009) reported that the effect of organic selenium (sel-plex) on productive, reproductive and physiological traits of bandarah local strain. Fertility and hatchability percentages were significantly increased in treated groups but hatched chicks weight was increased supplementation in the diets had improved the productive, reproductive and physiological traits in females and males of Bandarah local strain. Live body weight of females was significantly increased with increase of hens age, but no significant effect on feed consumption as the age of birds increased. Egg production percentage, egg weight, egg quality (Haugh unit, egg yolk index and shell thickness) and selenium content in yolk and albumen were significantly increased for hens fed Sel-Plex supplementation Semen ejaculate volume, advanced motility (%), alive sperm (%) and sperm concentration were significantly increased by Sel-Plex supplementation in cock's diet. Selenium is an essential component of at least 25 selenoproteins involved number of physiological function, including reproduction and fertility of hens. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium in hens revealed that energy production and protein translation was greater in oviduct when organic selenium added to feed. This is not observed in the supplementation of inorganic selenium (Brennan et al., 2011). Improvement of broiler breeder Improving broiler breeder by optimizing nutrition with specific feed rations is possible. It is possible to maximize performance of specific cross when fed specific diet. Selecting specific broiler cross that favors corn and wheat based rations and it may perform better growth rate under low or high percentage of enzymes, feed additives and also genetically altering plants provide better improved nutrition performance of the broiler breeder (Klasing et al.,2007.While selecting pedigree lines using nutrient rich or low rations, which may differ both protein and energy level. Selecting pedigree birds on low density feeds which can grow well in less expensive diets when unexpected shortage of commercial feeds (Pym,1990). Conclusion Nutrigenomics is a rapidly emerging science still in its beginning stages. It is uncertain whether the tools to study protein expression and metabolite production have been developed to the
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