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Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

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Page 1: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Page 2: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Competency 19.00

Describe the grading system for various feeder/finish livestock

Page 3: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Objective 19.01

Describe the grading system for various feeder/finish livestock

Page 4: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Beef Cattle Classes

Age classes– Calves

• less than one year of age

– Cattle• One year or older

– Veal calves• Less than three months old

Page 5: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Beef Cattle Classes

Age classes continued– Slaughter calves

• 3 months to one year old

– Feeder calves• 6 months to one year old

Page 6: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Beef Cattle Classes

Sex Classes– Steer

• Male castrated before sexual maturity

– Heifer• Has not had a calf or matured

– Cow– Bull– Stag

• Male castrated after sexual maturity

Page 7: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Beef Cattle Grades

Quality Grades– Prime

– Choice

– Select

– Standard

– Commercial

– Utility

– Cutter

– Canner

Page 8: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Beef Cattle Grades

Yield Grades– Yield Grade 1– Yield Grade 2– Yield Grade 3– Yield Grade 4– Yield Grade 5

Page 9: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Beef Cattle Grades

Feeder Cattle Grades– Determined by:

• Frame size

• Muscle thickness

• Thriftiness

Slaughter Cattle Grades– Both quality and yield grades

Page 10: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Swine Classes

Use Classes– Slaughter

• To be killed and sold as meat

– Feeder• To be feed to heavier weights before slaughter

Page 11: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Swine Classes

Sex Classes– Barrow

• Male castrated before sexual maturity

– Guilt• Young female that has not had pigs

– Sow– Boar– Stag

Page 12: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Swine Grades Slaughter swine

– Quality and Yield determine USDA grades• U.S. Number 1

• U.S. Number 2

• U.S. Number 3

• U.S. Number 4

• U.S. Utility

Feeder pig – Grades determined by slaughter potential and

thriftiness

Page 13: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Objective 19.02

Classify grades of feeder/finish livestock

Page 14: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Beef Grades

Quality Grade Determined by:

– Animal’s age– Muscling– Marbeling

Page 15: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Quality Grade (Beef)

1)Age and Class of Animal

Steers and Heifers Prime, Choice, Good, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and Canner

Cows All except Prime

Bulls and Stags All except Prime and Choice

Page 16: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Quality Grade (Beef)

2) Muscling– The amount and distribution of the finish– Firmness or fullness covering the animals body

Page 17: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Examples of Quality Grade (Beef)

Page 18: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Quality Grade (Beef)

3) Marbling Intermingling of fat with muscle fibers Observed in the ribeye muscle between the

12th and 13th rib Adequate marbling must be present for

tenderness and high quality grades The fat should not be soft and oily

Page 19: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Very Abundant Slight

Marbling (Beef)

Page 20: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Marbling (Beef)

Slight Marbling

Page 21: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Marbling (Beef)

Small Marbling

Page 22: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Marbling (Beef)

Modest Marbling

Page 23: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Marbling (Beef)

Moderate Marbling

Page 24: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Marbling (Beef)

Slightly Abundant Marbling

Page 25: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship
Page 26: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Quality Grade (Beef)

Maximum age– Standard, Select, Choice, or Prime is 42 months

or less– Commercial grade is over 42 months– Utility, Cutter, or Canner have no age limits– No Prime grade for slaughter cows

Page 27: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Yield Grades (Beef)

Percentage of the carcass that is boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin rib, and chuck

Numbered 1 to 5– Yield 1

• Best muscling with least amount of fat

– Yield 5• Worst grade with the less muscle and more fat waste

Page 28: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Yield Grades (Beef)Relationship of Yield Grades and Cutability

Yield Grade- % Boneless, Closely Trimmed Retail CutsFrom the Round, Loin, Rib and Chuck

1 52.6 - 54.6

2 50.3 - 52.3

3 48.0 - 50.0

4 45.7 - 47.7

5 43.3 - 45.4

Page 29: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Yield Grades (Beef)

The terms "yield" and "yield grade" should not be confused.

"Yield" alone means dressing percentage (carcass weight divided by live weight multiplied by 100), and is not directly related to yield grades or cutability.

Page 30: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Yield Grades (Beef)

1. Adjusted fat thickness- External fat is measured at the 12th rib

2. Percentage of Kidney, Pelvic and Heart Fat (KPH)- A subjective estimate of fat

3. Rib Eye Area

4. Hot Carcass Weight

Page 31: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Yield Grades (Beef)

USDA yield grades estimate the quantity of edible meat from the major wholesale cuts--round, loin, rib and chuck

Page 32: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Yield Grades (Beef)

Page 33: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Swine Grades

Quality Grade– Determined by the percent of carcass weight of

the:• Ham

• Loin

• Boston butt

• Picnic shoulder

Yield– Determined by backfat and degree of muscling

Page 34: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Objective 19.03

Classify grades of feeder/finish livestock using a given criteria

Page 35: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Feeder Steer and Heifer Grades

USDA Number 1, 2 and 3 Each USDA Grade has:

– Large Frame– Medium Frame– Small Frame

Page 36: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Slaughter Steer and Heifer Grades

USDA Quality grades from Prime down to Canner– About 80% of grain fed grade choice.

USDA Yield grades from Yield Grade 1 down to Yield Grade 5

Page 37: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Feeder Swine

Five U.S Grades (1,2,3,4, and Utility)– U. S. No. 1

• Has thick muscling, large frame, and is trim.

– Utility Grade• Diseased or unthrifty

• Has a head that appears too big for the body and has wrinkled skin.

Potential for feeding out to slaughter weight and grade affects feeder pig grades

Page 38: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Slaughter Barrows and Guilts

USDA grades from U.S. No. 1 down to U.S. No. 4

Muscling– thick– average– thin

Page 39: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Slaughter Barrows and Guilts

U.S. No. 1 Less than 1.00 inch. U.S. No. 2 1.00 to 1.24 inches. U.S. No. 3 1.25 to 1.49 inches. U.S. No. 4 1.50 inches and over

U.S. No. 1 must be no less than average muscling.

Page 40: Principles of Livestock/Poultry Evaluation and Showmanship

Slaughter Barrows and Guilts

Backfat– Maximum backfat for U.S. No. 1 is 1.0 inch or

1.25 inch if muscling is thick.– Maximum backfat for U.S. No. 3 is 1.49 or

1.75 if thick muscling– Thick muscling compensates for or effectively

subtracts 0.25 inch of backfat, and thin muscling adds 0.25 inch of backfat to the formula.