Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition

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<ul><li> 1. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition ODonnell, DAmico,Schmid, Reeve, Smith</li></ul> <p> 2. CHAPTER 1 Introducing Educational Psychology and Reflective Practice 3. Chapter 1:Introducing Educational Psychology and Reflective Practice </p> <ul><li>Themes of the Chapter </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Learning how to understand learners and to promote their learning helps teachers feel more comfortable and successful. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Students are diverse and some have special needs </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Theory and research play major roles in educational psychology and reflective practice </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 4. Guiding Questions </p> <ul><li>What is educational psychology? </li></ul> <ul><li>What primary concerns do beginning teachers have? </li></ul> <ul><li>What is reflective teaching, and how is it different from technical teaching? </li></ul> <ul><li>How can teachers recognize, adapt, and respond to diverse learners and students with special needs? </li></ul> <ul><li>How do educational psychologists use theory and research? </li></ul> <p> 5. Goals of Educational Psychology </p> <ul><li>Enhance theoretical knowledge of basic psychological processes </li></ul> <ul><li>Improve educational practice </li></ul> <p> 6. Teaching and Learning </p> <ul><li>Teaching </li></ul> <ul><li>A relatively permanent change in behaviour or knowledge as a result of experience </li></ul> <ul><li>Learning </li></ul> <ul><li>One persons interpersonal effort to help others acquire knowledge, develop skill, and realize their potential </li></ul> <p> 7. What Expert Teachers Know </p> <ul><li>Broad and deep subject matter knowledge </li></ul> <ul><li>How-to instructional strategies </li></ul> <ul><li>Knowledge about learning environments </li></ul> <ul><li>Knowledge about educational materials </li></ul> <p> 8. Concerns of Beginning Teachers </p> <ul><li>Classroom discipline </li></ul> <ul><li>Motivating students </li></ul> <ul><li>Special needs </li></ul> <ul><li>Assessment and grading </li></ul> <p> 9. Teaching Efficacy </p> <ul><li>A teachers judgement of, or confidence in, his or her capacity to cope with the teaching situation in ways that bring about desired outcomes </li></ul> <p> 10. Teaching Efficacy Categories </p> <ul><li>Efficacy for classroom management </li></ul> <ul><li>Efficacy for student engagement </li></ul> <ul><li>Efficacy for instructional strategies </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>See Table 1.3 (p.9) for sample questionnaire items that measure teaching efficacy </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 11. Examples of Statementsof Efficacy </p> <ul><li>Classroom management: I can prevent behaviour problems in the classroom . </li></ul> <ul><li>Student engagement: I can develop interesting tasks that students will enjoy . </li></ul> <ul><li>Instructional strategies: I can teach writing very well . </li></ul> <p> 12. Metaphors for Teaching </p> <ul><li>Provide examples of how teachers might describe their teaching if they adopted the metaphor of teacher as: entertainer, coach, lion tamer, choreographer, party host, circus master, traffic cop, ship captain, air traffic controller </li></ul> <ul><li>Benefits of Having Metaphors for Teaching: </li></ul> <ul><li>Facilitates reflection </li></ul> <ul><li>Serves as a standard for self-evaluation </li></ul> <ul><li>Helps initiate desired changes in teaching </li></ul> <p> 13. Two Modes of Teaching </p> <ul><li>Technical teaching : Teaching situation is predictable and calls for routine action </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Classroom experience: Constructive learning experience </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Reflective teaching :Teaching situation is surprising and calls for conjectures, information gathering, and decision-making. </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Knowledge about teaching and learning:Constructive learning experience </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 14. </p> <ul><li>Figure 1.2 Similarities in the Day-to-Day Work of Teachers and Researchers </li></ul> <p> 15. Model for Reflective Teaching: R eflection,I nformation gathering,D ecision making,E valuation (RIDE) 16. Your Turn </p> <ul><li>Ms Newby is afraid that she will not be able to handle students misbehaviours </li></ul> <ul><li>How might she solve this problem using the RIDE model? </li></ul> <p> 17. Diverse Learners inCanada </p> <ul><li>In Canada,14%of the 8 million students enrolled in public schools are visible minorities </li></ul> <ul><li>12% of these 8 million students have special needs that interfere with their ability to learn </li></ul> <ul><li>Response to diversity </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Equality </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 18. Instruction for Canadian Students with Special Needs </p> <ul><li>Individualize instruction dictated by theEducation Act </li></ul> <ul><li>Rely on direct and explicit instructional practices outlined in anindividual education program (IEP)required by law </li></ul> <ul><li>Meticulously arrange or structure the learning environment </li></ul> <ul><li>Provide external supports, such as calculators, tape-recorded textbooks, adaptive furniture, special lighting or acoustics </li></ul> <ul><li>Closely monitor students progress and provide systematic feedback </li></ul> <ul><li>Teach skill-based strategies, such as how to generate questions while reading </li></ul> <p> 19. Theory </p> <ul><li>What is theory and why is it important? </li></ul> <ul><li>Theoryis an intellectual framework that organizes a vast amount of knowledge about a phenomenon so that educators can understand and explain better the nature of that phenomenon </li></ul> <p> 20. Research Methods </p> <ul><li>Research methods provide evidence that assists teachers make appropriate choices in the classroom </li></ul> <ul><li>Types of research methods: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Descriptive studies </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Correlational studies </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Experimental studies </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Action research </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 21. Descriptive Studies </p> <ul><li>A research method used to describe the educational situation as it naturally occurs: what typically happens, how teachers teach, and how students learn and develop </li></ul> <ul><li>Example research question: How does Ms. Newby organize the physical layout of her classroom?</li></ul> <p> 22. Correlational Studies </p> <ul><li>A research method used to measure two naturally occurring variables and summarize the nature and magnitude of their relationship in numerical form </li></ul> <ul><li>Example research question: How is measured intelligence related to school achievement? </li></ul> <p> 23. Experimental Studies </p> <ul><li>A research method used to test for a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables </li></ul> <ul><li>Example research question: Is reading program A better than reading program B for teaching first graders to read? </li></ul> <p> 24. Action Research </p> <ul><li>A research method carried out by teachers in their own classrooms to inform and refine their personal theories of teaching and classroom learning </li></ul> <ul><li>Example research question: Do I ask boys more questions than I ask girls? </li></ul> <p> 25. What Kind of Research? </p> <ul><li>I want to decide if boys in the Grade 6 benefit more from cooperative learning than girls </li></ul> <ul><li>I want to decide if completion of homework is associated with better achievement </li></ul> <ul><li>I want to examine the number of errors present in the Grade 8 science book </li></ul> <ul><li>I want Maria to tell me about her experiences in solving a math problem </li></ul> <p> 26. Critical Thinking of Teachers </p> <ul><li>Teachers supplement their subjective ways of knowing with objective, data-based ways of knowing and go beneath the surface of their idea </li></ul> <p> 27. Copyright </p> <ul><li>Copyright 2008 John Wiley &amp; Sons Canada, Ltd.All rights reserved.Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (the Canadian copyright licensing agency) is unlawful.Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley &amp; Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these files or programs or from the use of the information contained herein. </li></ul>