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  • Slide 1
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition ODonnell, DAmico, Schmid, Reeve, Smith
  • Slide 2
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition CHAPTER 4 Individual Differences Among Learners
  • Slide 3
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Chapter 4 Individual Differences Among Learners Themes of the chapterThemes of the chapter Conceptualizations of intelligence have changed over Identifying and accommodating students with special needs Poverty affects children in schools
  • Slide 4
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Guiding Questions How was intelligence understood initially, and how have views of intelligence changed over time?How was intelligence understood initially, and how have views of intelligence changed over time? How is intelligence measured, and how is it related to achievementHow is intelligence measured, and how is it related to achievement What happens when students are grouped by ability?What happens when students are grouped by ability?(continued)
  • Slide 5
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Guiding Questions (continued) How does talent develop?How does talent develop? In general, how do schools identify children with special needs?In general, how do schools identify children with special needs? How are learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identified?How are learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identified? How do differences in socioeconomic status and culture affect students success in school ?How do differences in socioeconomic status and culture affect students success in school ?
  • Slide 6
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Variability in the Classroom A teachers challenge is to acknowledge and celebrate the differences among children and work to maximize the growth in each childA teachers challenge is to acknowledge and celebrate the differences among children and work to maximize the growth in each child A teacher must also adhere to the mandates of the curriculumA teacher must also adhere to the mandates of the curriculum
  • Slide 7
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition History of Intelligence Galton (1869)Galton (1869) Interested in the study of individual differences and in eugenics which was a political and scientific movement that argued for selective reproduction of individuals and immigration laws based on intelligence levels Binet (1905)Binet (1905) Published (with Simon) the first set of intelligence scales to identify low-achieving students who might need help
  • Slide 8
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition History of Intelligence Binet (1916)Binet (1916) Intelligence is judgment and adapting to ones circumstances Stern with Terman (1920)Stern with Terman (1920) Devised the intelligent quotient (IQ) IQ = mental age/chronological age x 100 Goddard (1920)Goddard (1920) Intelligence is an innate ability, or present at birth
  • Slide 9
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition History of Intelligence Spearman (1923)Spearman (1923) Factor analyzed a large number of measures of mental ability and concluded that intelligence was one factor he called g (general) along with a variety of specific factors Thurstone (1957)Thurstone (1957) Proposed a model of intelligence with seven primary mental abilities
  • Slide 10
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Thurstones Primary Mental AbilitiesThurstones Primary Mental Abilities Verbal comprehension Word fluency Number facility Spatial visualization Associate memory Perceptual speed Reasoning History of Intelligence
  • Slide 11
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Cattell (1963)Cattell (1963) the ability to solve problems, figure out what to do when one is not sure what to do, and acquire new skills Fluid intelligence the ability to solve problems, figure out what to do when one is not sure what to do, and acquire new skills the use of acquired skills and knowledge such as reading and language skills Crystallized intelligence the use of acquired skills and knowledge such as reading and language skills History of Intelligence
  • Slide 12
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Controversies in Intelligence a shorthand term for the debate over whether mental abilities are developed by the individuals environment (nature) or inherited (nurture)Nature/nurture a shorthand term for the debate over whether mental abilities are developed by the individuals environment (nature) or inherited (nurture) a movement that argued that intelligence is genetic, so governments should encourage reproduction of those with high intelligence and not those with lower intelligenceEugenics a movement that argued that intelligence is genetic, so governments should encourage reproduction of those with high intelligence and not those with lower intelligence
  • Slide 13
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition More Recent Views of Intelligence Gardners (1983) theory of multiple intelligencesGardners (1983) theory of multiple intelligences Sternbergs (1985) triarchic theory of intelligenceSternbergs (1985) triarchic theory of intelligence Sternbergs (1997) idea of successful intelligenceSternbergs (1997) idea of successful intelligence
  • Slide 14
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Sternbergs Theory of Intelligence holds that intelligence has three main facets each of which is the top of a hierarchyTriarchic theory holds that intelligence has three main facets each of which is the top of a hierarchy Analytical: ability to respond effectively to problems Metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge acquisition componentsMetacomponents, performance components, and knowledge acquisition components Creative: ability to generate new ideas Novelty or insight and automaticity (ability to perform a task without having to think much about itNovelty or insight and automaticity (ability to perform a task without having to think much about it Practical: ability to handle everyday problems and issues
  • Slide 15
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition
  • Slide 16
  • Sternbergs Successful Intelligence The ability to succeed in life, given ones own goals, within ones environmental contexts with four key elements for teachersThe ability to succeed in life, given ones own goals, within ones environmental contexts with four key elements for teachers Teaching for memory learning Teaching for analytical learning Teaching for creative learning Teaching for practical learning
  • Slide 17
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences(MI) Logical-mathematical Linguistic Spatial Musical Bodily-kinesthetic Naturalistic Interpersonal Intrapersonal
  • Slide 18
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Views of Intelligence the belief that intelligence is genetically determined and not alterableEntity view the belief that intelligence is genetically determined and not alterable the belief that intelligence can be improved through effortIncremental view the belief that intelligence can be improved through effort
  • Slide 19
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Your Turn If someone has an entity view of their own ability what does this mean for how hard her or she will work at tasks?If someone has an entity view of their own ability what does this mean for how hard her or she will work at tasks? What about those with an incremental view of their own abilities? How does this affect how hard they will work at tasks?What about those with an incremental view of their own abilities? How does this affect how hard they will work at tasks?
  • Slide 20
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition How Is Intelligence Measured? VerbalVerbal Information Similarities Arithmetic Vocabulary Comprehension Digit span PerformancePerformance picture completion Coding Picture arrangement Block design Object assembly Symbol search Mazes Standardized IQ Test WISC IV
  • Slide 21
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition How Is Intelligence Measured? Sequential ProcessingSequential Processing Hand movements Number recall Word order Simultaneous ProcessingSimultaneous Processing Magic window face recognition Gestalt closure Triangles Matrix analogies Spatial memory Photo series Standardized IQ Test K-ABC II
  • Slide 22
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Issues in Intelligence Testing Test bias systematic unfair treatment of a particular group of individualsTest bias systematic unfair treatment of a particular group of individuals Test bias problems led to the development ofTest bias problems led to the development of Culture-free tests: standardized tests that do not include items that might favor one culture over another (e.g., Ravens Progressive Matrices, 1995)
  • Slide 23
  • Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Average IQ score is 100Average IQ score is 100 Standard Deviation is 15Standard Deviation is 15 68% of people have scores that fall within one standard deviation of the average68% of people have scores that fall within one standard deviation of the average Extreme scores are those that fall outside of 2 standard deviations from the mean (in positive and negative directions)Extreme scores are those that fall o

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