Psychology and educational psychology

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PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY MEANING, SCOPE AND IMPORTANCECOURSE CO-ORDINATOR :- GUIDED BY :- Presented By:-Prof. S.P. Singh Prof. Shree Ram Singh AMIT KUMAR ARYA Agril. Extention Roll.No.13006 BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITYB.Sc.(Ag.) 4th Yr., INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE SCIENCES, BHUPRESENTATION ON PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY INTRODUCTION:- Father of Psychology is Sigmund Freud.Although human behaviour seems to follow certain general trends, individuals respond differently to elements in specific situations.An individuals behaviour consists not only of his observable acts but also of his reactions to inner states and different factors of influence.The factors that influence and individuals behaviour include his education, personal factors, situational factors and environmental factors such as persons around him, objects he confronts with situations and conditions in which he lives.So psychologists who are interested in studying human behaviour will not only study different aspects of behaviour but also what are the similarities and differences among human reactions and what causes such behaviour. .Psychology has its origin from two Greek words psyche (soul) and logos (a rational course or a study). Definitions of Psychology:.Psychology is the scientific study of the behaviour of an individual. -DanielPsychology is the science of mental activity of an organism. GuilfordPsychology is a science of human behaviour.Psychology is the science that studies the responses which living individuals make to their environment. Murthy Psychology is the science of behaviour and adjustment.Introduction to the science of Educational Psychology:When we say that education plays a vital role in human behaviour it is imperative (essential) to study the mode of such role the education plays. The desirable changes in behaviour that represent basic features of education are:Knowledge: it is the intimate acquaintance with factSkill: The ability to do a particular thingAttitude: the positive or negative feeling one has towards any psychological objectDefinitions of Educational Psychology:.Educational Psychology is the branch of psychology that describes and explains the learning experiences of an individual and the progress in his educational development from birth to old age Crow and Crow.Educational psychology is the study of the psychological aspects of educational situation Trow.Educational Psychology is a combination or overlapping of two separate fields of study; psychology and education. It is a distinct discipline with its own theories, research methods, problems and techniques.Educational psychology is distinct from other fields of psychology due to its focus on understanding the processes of teaching and learning that takes place in formal environments. Scope of Psychology: .The application of psychology has a very wider area in the study of human behaviour as follows:1. To identify the nature and characteristics of learner2. The nature of learning process3. The principles of teaching and learning process4. The human growth and development5. The techniques employed in teaching6. Identification of personality traits7. Development and adjustment of psychological traits8. Scientific measurement and evaluation of psychological traitsImportance of Psychology: The study of psychology as the science of human behaviour helps in identifying-1. The abilities of individual2. The needs of individual and techniques to be employed to motivate them3. The hereditary and environmental factors the affect the behaviour4. The levels of achievement motivation of the individuals5. The factors that result in individual, intellectual differences and reasons for people becoming problem men6. The factors that lead to differential perceptions7. The causes of retarded learning8. The causes of emotions and frustration in human beings9. The causes of forgetting and how to improve memory10. The levels of knowledge, attitudes possessed by the individuals11. The different psychological traits possessed by individuals. By the application of different tests and help in evaluation of the behaviour of the individualSCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSIONEducational psychology deals with the behaviour of human beings in educational situations. Its main concern is to identify various psychological factors affecting teaching and learning process. It describes and explains the learning according to scientifically determined principles and facts concerning human behaviour. Educational psychology addresses the questions why do some individual learn more than others" and "what can be done to improve that learning." Therefore, its subject matter is revolved around teaching and learning process and educational psychologists attempt to discover: The extent to which the factors of heredity and environment contribute to learning. The nature of the learning process.SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION The educational significance of individual differences in rate and limit of learning. The inner change that occur during learning. The relation of teaching procedures to leaning outcomes. The most effective techniques for evaluating progress in learning. The relative effect upon an individual of formal learning as compared with incidental or informal learning experiences. To value the scientific attitude towards education. The psychological impact upon learners attitude of sociological conditions.Agricultural extension is education and its main purpose is to change the behaviour of farmers. Therefore, knowledge of educational psychology is useful to extension agent for understanding the factors affecting the teaching and learning process.IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSIONThe importance of educational psychology in agricultural extension is immense as both disciplines deal with human behaviour in educational environment. Following are the some of the reasons which explain the importance of educational psychology in agricultural extension. Educational psychology helps the extension agent to know the learner, his interest, attitudes, aptitude, level of aspiration, intelligence, interests, individual behaviour in group, etc. which plays a major role in one's learning. Its main concern is on teaching and learning. This helps in formulating training programmes for improving the knowledge and skill of extension agent and farmers. It also helps in selection of teaching methods and aids for organizing effective learning situations and suggests technique of learning as well as teaching. It helps in imparting better education by organizing the subject matter of learning experience, preparation of different text books, development of assessment patterns, etc. for heterogeneous learners. Educational psychology helps in acquainting learner with the mechanism of heredity and environment. It also deals with the problem-solving which is very important for extension agent to develop problem-solving skills amongst farmers. It helps extension agent to find causes of prejudices, the habit of sticking to old practices of farming and ways of doing things, the doubts and lack of confidence and factors affecting motivation. It also helps them to know the emotions and feelings of farmers, how farmers learn new practicesPSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNINGThis area is concerned with such problems as : 1)How do children acquire skills?2) When is learning more effective?3)What are the factors that help the learning Process? 4)How do we measure the amount of learning?5)Are there any economic methods of memorizing?6)Why do we forget? 7)Can memory be improved? 8)Dose the study of Sanskrit helps than study of Hindi?Psychology helps the teacher to get answers to these questions. It tells us that learning becomes more effective if factors like motivation and interest are taken into consideration by every teacher. .The knowledge of psychology has helped the teacher in modifying her approach to the teaching learning process..The study of educational Psychology has brought about change in the approach and therefore we have child centered education. Psychological principles are used in formulation curriculum for different stage.. Attempts are made to provide subjects and activities in the curriculum which are in conformity with the needs of the students, their developmental characteristics, learning patterns and also needs of the society.NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGYFollowing are the important characteristics of the nature of educational psychology:It is an applied branch of fundamental Psychology. It combines two fields i.e. education and psychology. It is the scientific study of human behaviour in educational situation. It is concerned with these factors, principles and techniques which relate to the various aspects of childs growth and development. It is concerned with learning situation and process by which learning can be more efficient and effective. Educational Psychology, draws heavily from various branches of psychology, biology sociology and anthropology Educational Psychology is not as exact as natural sciences since the human behaviour cannot be predicated exactly, because it is dynamic. Educational Psychology is a science of education dealing primarily with how, when and what of education. It is not a normative a science as it is not concerned with the value of educational and doesnt concern itself with and What ought to be. It only describes what it is, it is an applied positive science. While psychology deals with the behaviour of all individuals in all walks of life. Educational Psychology limits its dealing with the behaviour of the pupil in relation to Educational environment. It does not concern with what and why of education it gives the necessary knowledge and skill (Technical Guidance) for giving education the pupil in a satisfactory way.SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGYSix major areas covered by Educational Psychology are: The Learner The learning Process The learning Situation The Teaching Situation Evaluation of Learning Performance The TeacherSCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

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