educational psychology- test and measurement

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2. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TESTS AND MEASUREMENTEDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT-refers to the use of educational assessments andthe analysis of data such as scores obtained fromeducational assessments to infer the abilities andproficiencies of studentsChinese were the first people to utilize theexamination to measure ability. It was informallybegun in 225 B.C. and became a definite civilservice examination system in 29B.C. ( Ross,32) 3. Rev. George Fisher- an English schoolmaster who started theearliest scientific process of measuringachievements of pupils.- in 1864, he devised an instrument calledthe Scale Book- inventor of educational measurement. 4. J.M. Rice- a school administrator who started the development ofobjective tests like spelling and similar tests in arithmeticand language in 1894 from which evolved the moremodern objective tests in different subjects.E. L. Thorndike- father of educational measurement.- wrote books1. Mental and Social Measurements- published in1904 in which were found statistical procedures and testsupon which statistical techniques and tests of today werebased. 5. 2. Thorndike Handwriting Scale- published in 1904 which assigned quantitative valuesto different qualities of handwriting.C.W. Stone- in 1908, he constructed two tests in arithmetic whichdeals on the ff:1. fundamental operations2. arithmetic reasoning - used in school surveys andwas considered his most notable contribution toeducational testing and measurement( Flores,2)S.A. Curtis (1909)- originated the concept of norms and standards 6. M. Hillegas- constructed the Hillegas Composition Scale in 1912and became the basis of composition scales.PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT-is the development of procedures to measure peoplescharacteristics like intelligence or personality.Gustav Theodore Fechner-published a book entitled Elemente derPsychophysicwhich contained the beginnings ofquantitative psychological measurement. 7. QUANTITATIVE PSYCHOLOGY-the American Psychological Associationdefines Quantitative Psychology as "the study ofmethods and techniques for the measurementof human attributes, the statistical andmathematical modeling of psychologicalprocesses, the design of research studies, andthe analysis of psychological data". 8. H.L. F. Helmholtz- his greatest contributions were his experiments in thesensory fields of vision and hearing and in themeasurement of the speed impulse and reaction-time.( Flores,3)Wilhelm Wundt-established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig,Germany.- His experiments on visual, auditory, cutaneous, olfactoryand others resulted in the study of individual differences inphysical and mental traits. 9. Francis Galton& J. Mc Keen Cattell- conducted earliest experiments in learning about the mind.Galton- devised a whistle and tests that measured discriminationof heat, weight, pain, and sound. He also measured mentalimagery.- his most important contribution was his statistical analysisin which he suggested a graphical method of correlation.Cattell - made tests which he used in measuring keenness ofsight and hearing, rate and accuracy of movement, ability toperceive weight, pitch and time , sensitivity to pain, imageryand memory. He suggested the term mental tests in 1890. (Ross, 41) 10. Alfred Binet- a French psychologist who was the first to devise aninstrument to measure the more complex mental functions.Heintroduced the term mental age.Stern - he introduced the concept of representingintelligence as the ratio of mental age to chronological age andsuggested the term mental quotient in 1912 which becameI.Q.( Ross,26)Group Intelligence Test- started during the first world war . It was tried with therecruits in the United States Army. It was first constructed byArthur Otis with the help of Robert Yerkes and LewisTerman. 11. Group Intelligence Tests Developed in 19171. Army Alpha- verbal test2. Army Beta- performance test Pintner and Paterson- are the first men to construct a performance test tomeasure the intelligence of deaf children called Pintner-Paterson Performance Scale Carl E. Seashore- a pioneer in the measurement of aptitude. He constructedthe first test to measure the musical ability called theSeashore Test of Musical Ability which came out in 1915. 12. Other Aptitude Tests1. Stenquist Test of General Mechanical Ability (1918)2. Mathematical ability test by Rogers (1918)3. McAdory Art Test- one of the earliest art test developed byMargaret McAdory Siceloff published in 1933.Personality Tests- is very useful in industry, business and in the government. It isused to measure traits such as attitude, temperament, socialability, temperament, values, emotion, vocational interests,extroversion, introversion, levels of dominance andsubmissiveness.- Galton- most influential in the development of tests tomeasure traits. 13. Famous Scales to Measure Traits1. Scott Man- to Man Scale- used extensively with soldiersduring the first World War.2. Woodworth Personal Data Sheet- used to measure theability of soldiers to adjust to army life also during the waryears.3. X-O Test published in 1919 by Pressey. It was used tomeasure emotionality.4. Test to measure Introversion-Extraversion- made byMarston5. Test to measure ascendance-submissiveness- made byAllport6. Test to measure social attitudes and interests- by Hart in 1925 14. Measurement and EvaluationMeasurement-is the process of determining thequantity of achievement of learners by means ofappropriate measuring instruments.Evaluation- is the process of determining thequality or worth of achievement in terms ofcertain standards. 15. Instruments Used in MeasurementMeasuring instrument a device , tangible or otherwise , usedfor determining the quantity of achievement.1. Examination- is an appraisal of ability, achievement, orstatus in any respect. It may also refer to the instrument insuch an appraisal.2. Test- a type of measuring instrument whose generalcharacteristic is that it forces responses from a pupil and suchresponses are considered to be indicative of the pupilsknowlwdge, attitude, etc. ( Bradfield and Moredock, 44) 16. 3. Quiz- is a relatively short test given periodically to measureachievement in material recently taughtor on any small, newly completed unit of work.4. Item- is a part of the test that elicits a specific response (Bradfield and Murdock,44)Results of Measurement1. Score- is a number that indicates the quantity of achievementof an individual in a test which is commonly determined interms of items correctly answered.2. Achievement- is the level of measure of knowledge orproficiency of performance of a pupil or a student in a subjecttaught in school. 17. Factors that make educational measurement difficult1. Many of the objects of measurement are highly abstract,hence, cannot be measured directly.2. Many of the objects of measurement which are measuredas distinct entities by themselves may actually refer to thesame thing.3. There is no zero point to start measurement from.4. Most of the objects of measurement are behaviors and aresubject to change.5. An object of measurement may be measured differentlyby different persons and for different purposes. Thiscauses confusion. 18. 6. There is lack or scarcity of measuring instruments thatgive accurate measurement.7. Environmental factors affects the students ability toassimilate and also affect their ability to score in a test.8. The human element of the measurer also affectsmeasurement.9. The health of the measured also affects measurement.10. Cheating adversely affects accurate measurement.11. Absences also affect measurement. 19. FUNCTIONS OF MEASUREMENT1. Instructional functions-when measurement is used to determine the outcomes ofteaching and learning processes and when it is used to makelearning more effective.a. Principal instructional functions- are the basicpurposes of measurement.1. To determine what knowledge, skills, abilities,habits, and attitudes have been acquired.2. To determine what progress has been made in theacquisition of the learning outcomes mentioned above. 20. 3. To determine the strengths, weaknesses, difficulties andneeds of the students. (Diagnostic function)b. Secondary instructional functions are also calledauxiliary functions. It helps make teaching and learningmore effective1. To help in the formation of study habits.2. To develop the effort-making capacity of the students.3. To serve as aid for guidance, counseling, and prognosis. 21. 2. Administrative and supervisory functions ofmeasurement- are those that help in making the instructionalfunctions more effective.a. To maintain standards1. To maintain their standards, some schools, collegesand universities administer tests to applicants forenrollment to determine who should qualify to enrol.2. to determine who should be allowed to take coursesin college that involve much intellectual activity. 22. 3. Achievement in school subjects is measured bymeans of tests and the results serve as basis fordetermining who should be promoted to the nexthigher level and who should be retained.4. For social purposes, the government administersexaminations to determine who should be licensed topractise their professions.5. For efficiency reasons, the government administerstests to determine who should enter the governmentservice. 23. b. To classify or select students forsocial purposes:1. Grouping of students into classes or sections based on abilityfor instructional purposes is an old educational practice.2. Tests are used to discover the extremely bright and talentedstudents, the very dull or handicapped ones, or those withspecial talents.3. For the purposes of granting scholarships4. Tests are also given for emotional, educational, andvocational guidance and counseling purposes. 24. c. To determine the efficiency of teachers, theeffectiveness of their methods, techniques andstrategies, their strengths, weaknesses and