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Download Classical Empires Han Dynasty, Roman Empire and Guptan Empire Characteristics of Empires Greek, Roman and Chinese Traditions Han and Roman Empires Reasons

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  • Classical Empires Han Dynasty, Roman Empire and Guptan Empire Characteristics of Empires Greek, Roman and Chinese Traditions Han and Roman Empires Reasons for Decline
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  • THE CLASSICAL Empires (1000 BCE - 600 CE) During this era, world history was shaped by the rise of several large civilizations that grew from areas where the earlier civilizations thrived. 1.kept more accurate records, so historical information about them is much more abundant 2.provide many direct links to today's world, so that we may refer to them as root societiesones that modern societies have grown from 3.expansionistdeliberately conquering lands around them to create large empires
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  • Common Features of Classical Civilizations Each civ developed their own beliefs, lifestyles, political institutions, and social structures however, there were important similarities: Patriarchal family structures - Like the river valley societies earlier, the classical civilizations valued male authority within families, as well as in most other areas of life. Agricultural-based economies - Despite more sophisticated and complex job specialization, the most common occupation in all areas was farming therefore most lived where? Complex governments Expanding trade base
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  • Characteristics of Classical Empires Powerful military Effective government bureaucracy Control large territory-multiethnic and multicultural Uniform currency and weights and measures Service of citizens (civic duty) Advancement of military technology Uniform legal codes Public works Lavish public monuments Patronize the arts and scholarship Slavery? everywhere but
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  • Trade continued
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  • Greco-Roman Traditions Active participation in politics Greek city-state, Roman republic Aristocracy Republic philosopher kings Rule by law codified, movement towards equitable law Polytheism (though Christianity makes extensive gains during the late Roman Empire) Slave Labor
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  • East Asian Traditions Ancestor Worship Dynastic Cycle (will be discussed later) Legalism and Confucianism Reinforced social hierarchy and male dominance Meritocracy Established by Qin; merit (hard work) enabled (limited) upward social mobility
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  • Han and Roman Empire Similarities Highly stratified societies Patriarchal families Confucianism, pater familias Agricultural base free peasants-small farms or tenant farmers, heavy dependency on slavery and latifundias (estates) Educated civil service Confucian trained scholar bureaucrats, civic responsibility Highly centralized state
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  • Han and Roman continued Multicultural empires most conquered assimilated, citizenship offered to best, extension of Roman law Extensive road systems and urban communities Subordinated women Powerful armies maintain the empire
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  • Direct Comparisons 1. Rome 1.Well organized bureaucracy founded on Roman law and classical learning 2.Emphasis on family: pater familias 3.Reliance on patricians: women gained power and property rights within families 4.Engineering: roads, aqueducts, amphitheatres, domes, sewage systems, central heating 5.Inventions: concrete, the arch (probably Etruscan), insulae (apartment buildings) 6.Religion: Emperor as god, paganism, mystery religions, introduction of Christianity 1. Han 1.Well organized bureaucracy founded on Confucian ideals and education 2.Emphasis on family, ancestors: patriarchal 3.Reliance on gentry as support: good marriages afforded women more rights 4.Engineering: roads, canals, the Great Wall 5.Inventions: wheelbarrow, gunpowder, printing press, compass, paper, paper currency (all before 1000 ce) 6.Religion: Confucianism, Daoism, native gods, introduction of Buddhism
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  • Decline of Empires Han and Roman
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  • Decline Empires too big costly to defend the frontiers Burden of taxes on the poor, some flee to evade taxes, as maintaining the empire grows more costly taxes go up, few new sources of revenue, religious groups and nobility exempt Slavery in Rome (supply and demand???) Hurts working class Romans Oppressive less productive, fewer new sources, less technological development
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  • Decline (Continued) Administrative problems succession corruption, weak emperors failing bureaucracies corruption of examination system, lack of civic responsibility In Rome bread and circuses to forestall revolts Eroding economies decline in trade when roads not repaired or safe
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  • Decline (Continued) Religion Christianity a factor in Rome, but Buddhism is not PlaguesPlagueshit both hard, especially in cities of Roman empire Pressure from nomadsPressure from nomads Huns, Xiongnu, Germanic
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  • Dynastic Cycle in China New dynasty comes to power Emperor reforms government and makes more efficient Lives of common people improved, taxes reduced, farming encouraged Problems begin (wars, invasions, drought etc Taxes increase, men forced to work for army, farming neglected. Govt increases spending, corruption ensues Droughts, floods, famine, continued war etc strains dynasty Poor lose respect for govt, join rebels, attack landlords Rebel unite under strong leader and attack emperor Start:
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  • Why did the west fall harder? Han Chinese more multiethnicHan Chinese more multiethnic a true nation that can endure beyond the dynasty; In Roman empire most live outside Italy State and society not bound together with the same glue In China, Confucianism offers both order for family, society and state not true of Romans Rome employed a mercenary army- loyalty issues! Better assimilation of barbarians by China, Germanic tribes dismembered Roman empire, while nomads absorbed by ChineseGermanic tribes dismembered Roman empire Common language Roman (vulgate Latin) never replaced Greek in much of the empire Dynastic Cycles
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  • Why western Roman empire and not eastern? Deep, engrained civilization in the east Greeks and before East less impacted by nomadic invasion maybe because many enduring cities, large populations Tribes on eastern borders were disorganized and unmotivated After separation of empire, east no longer has to send any help to West When west cut from wealth of East, the tax base dwindled
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