CLAMDA-IM – Project Management Project Management 3.The project planning a.Project planning techniques a.Time planning b.Resources planning c.Economic

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Project Management 3.The project planning a.Project planning techniques a.Time planning b.Resources planning c.Economic planning </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques A good plan recalls a movie script Scenes and their logical succession are described Actors are defined; when they will enter in the scene and the speech to say So, the plan is the tool needed to define for all the path to reach the result. It shows risks and weak areas; allow to compare what is done with what we should have to do; shows if some corrective or preheventive actions are necessary </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques Having a good plan allows: 1.Defining sub targets; 2.Describing the activity sequance to achieve the target 3.Verifying activity time and duration 4.Defining responsibles 5.Having a complete project view 6.Take actions to reduce the project total time 7.Having a communication basis with customers or internal/external shareholders 8.Reducing risks and underlining it to define corrective actions 9.Having an analisys base to understand and control project costs </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques Planning check list 1.Defining final and intermediate targets in order to time respect, costing and resources; 2.Defining the WBS; 3.Building the Responsible Matrix; 4.Valuating the activities in duration, costs and resources required; 5.Defining activities interactions, costraints and sequences; 6.Defining the project calendar; 7.Defining the max/min start/end dates, the scrolls, the critical paths (CPM); 8.Making the bar diagram (GANTT); 9.Analizing the resources charge and doing the correct adjustements; 10.Developing the project budget. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques Making the WBS The WBS is the technique to define the job to do in the project by disassembling the project in little sub projects till defining operative activities package identified, assigned and misureabled (so planned, programmed and under control). Why is so difficult making the WBS? Because we need a criteria to classify the activities. This criteria must valuate and give an answer to: What kind of structure? How do we disassemble complex activities? How to describe the disassemble activities bloks? What detail level? What aggreation modals? </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques Making the WBS What structure? The WBS structure is usually hierarchic-pyramyd The structure show a top-down structure:from general to particular Activities and targets located in a defined level depends from thos located ad the underneath level </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques Making the WBS What criteria to disassemble activities? The WBS must have all the items deliverable (deliverables project products, or milestones control point), and all the main activities connected. OBJECTIVE CRITERIA in this logic, the project target is dived into sub targets and above each sub taget we describe processes and necessary activities. PROJECT Target 1Traget 2Target 3 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques WORK-PROCESS CRITERIA the project is divided based on the processes we will do to reach the deliverables. The firs WBS level will be a whole of processes. At the top of the diagram we will have the macro- processes. The limit is that is not always possible assigning the process responsability to only one person. This criteria is good for repetitive projects. Flat refurbishment WallsElectrical plantThermical plant DemolitionsRebuilding West wall demolition East wall demolition Kitchen wall building Painting </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques LIFE-CYCLE OR PHASE CRITERIA in this case WBS shows at the last level the deliverables or milestones. This criteria is good for internal organizational projects. COMPANY PARTY PROJECT EVENT DEFINITION PREPARATIONEVENT MANAGEMENT ScreenplayContracts EventsChoreograp hy Guests CommunicationActivities prep AdvertisingInvitations </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques LOCALIZATION CRITERIA the WBS is divided into packages located in several space locations (es: movie). DOCUMENTARY 1.1 Africa filiming1.2 Italia filming1.3 Editing Rome </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques Description each WBS element is identified as a description and an activity code. The activity code is level structred Detail level from level in level, complexity and width are reducted. Last level is a pwork not further decomposeble work package having following characteristics: Planned in time, costs and resources; Assigned to just one respondible; With a defined duration compared with the whole project. 1.1 Africa filming 1.1.1 xxxxx1.1.2 yyyy 1.1.2.1 nnn1.1.2.2 kkkk </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques The work package for each w-p we have to define: Work to do description Resource responsible Time, cost and further resources required Input requested from other w-p Espected output Input and output represents the interface elements froma and to other w-p, and must be corrected valuated from the Project Manager. The w-p are sono put together following the WBS structure. 1.1 Layout definition 5ggOp Mngr Input: Material flow and volumes Output: Layout (drawings and file.dwg) </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN THE GANTT The GANTT diagram (called also bar chart) was the first modern graphic planning tool. It is a graphic project view with all the time and planning information. It was invented by Henry Gantt (1861-1919), industrial engineer industriale, Taylor disceple and consultant od the War Ministry in the first years of 1900. Is a view of the project development in a time scale. Every bar represents an activity; the bar length is proportional to the activity duration. Limit: the logical connections between activities are not represented. At the same time, resources responsible or needed for each activity are not showed. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN THE GANTT A B C D GENFEBMAR APRMAYJUNJUL ACTIVITIES TIME </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM The Network Planning (or Project Grid Planning) is a graphic activity representation; it shows the time sequence of all the tasks to do in order to achieve the project target. The PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique), was the first reticular plan tool. It was born in 1958-59 froma a little consultat society of Washington (ORS) for the US Navy Special Projects Office to develop the first nuclear submersible rocket: the Polaris. The Navy knowed that every project with sub- contractors was full of delay risks, so it was looking for a planning system allowing it to have more control In the PERT all the WBSs activities must be represented in a logical sequence in s network. The evaluation of activity duration is done by a probabilistic function following three criteria: optimistic, pessimistic e probable. In the sequence is possible calculate the Critical Path and the probable time and project duration. The method allows to describe in a rational way activities very complex, it has a probabilistic soul, allows to calculate the risk ratio, but it is very complex to use. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM The CPM (Critical Path Method), is a semplify modification of the PERT In the CPM, the way to define activities duration is deterministic, so exact. The probabilistic function disappears. With the CPM is more easy to calculate the progress percentage of each activity rather than the PERT. In the CPM we can obtain in a easy way the parameters like Early and Late Start and Ending, it is also easy identify the most rigid activities (critical path). PERT is good in case of very variable time (es: R&amp;D projects), while CPM is more suitable when we are able to define time with more accuracy. To make the project grid we need to start from WBS where all the activities were noted with their duration. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM Logical activities sequences After we have identified all the project activities with its durations, we need to define the logical constrains, i.e the sequential connections between activities. For each activity we need to understand what activity must be completed before, so the activity can start, and what activities cannot start before the end of the activity under exam. 1.1 Material Flow def 2ggResp Log 1.2 Volumes definition 5ggResp Prd 1.4 Layout definition 5ggDir Op </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM Logical activities sequences The logical sequence descripted defines that the 1.4 activity can start only if the 1.1 and 1.2 activities are ended. This condition is written with FS (Finish to Start) and is formalized in the following way: 1.1 Material flow def 2ggResp Log 1.2 Volumes def 5ggResp Prd 1.4 Layout def 5ggDir Op </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM Logical activities sequences There are four logical connection types: FS Finish to Start: the B activity cannot start if the A activity is not ended SF Start to Finish: the B activity cannot end if the A activity is not started SS Start to Start: the B activity cannot start if the A activity is not started FF Finish to Finish: the B activity cannot end if the A activity is not ended A B A B A B A B FSSFSSFF </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM Milestones and activities duration After the logical connection definition, we need estimate the duration and define the project calendar. The project calendar means to define the project starting date, defining the working days (we define non-working days and the standard nuber of hours for each working day) for each resource of the project. The duration may be expressed in every time unit (hours, days, weeks, quarters). Is necessary identifying some important events, called milestones, where something of important happens (like kick off, checks, approvals, deliveries, etc etc). Milestones have duration 0 for definition. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM The project grid planning with the CPM method is done by a sequential algorothm that combine the activities respecting existing time and succession constraints. By the CPM algorithm we can get following informations: Minimum Dates of start and end related each activity Maximum Dates of start and end related each activity The end project date The project Critical Paths (activities sequences that cannot delay without causes the entire project delay) The potential delay admitted of activities located aoutside critical paths (in other words, how much time an activity can delay without causes an entire project delay). </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM The project start date EST = Early Start Time The minimum start date ES = Early Start Date it represents the calendar date when an activity CAN start (as early as possible). The minimum end date EF = Early Finish Date it represents the calendar date when an activity CAN be completed (as early as possible). The maximum start date LS = Late Start Date it represents the calendar date when an activity MUST start (late) without compromizes the total project time (the end project date). The maximum end date LF = Late Finish Date it represents the calendar date when an activity MUST end. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM example Project network Start 10g A 27g C 42g B 35g E 612g D 517g End 70g CodDuration Description </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM example To calculate the minimum activity dates of start and end, starting from the project start date (EST = day 1), we go forward following the activities sequences as shown in the network, and adding each duration (at early). EF A = ES A + Du A = 1+7 (-1*) = 7 (* we start counting the start day) EF c = ES C + Du C = 1+2 (-1*) = 2 Following the network, we will see that the minimum start date of B activity, depends on the minimum end date of the previous activity (A). Start 10g A 27g C 42g B 35g E 612g D 517g End 70g 1 7 12 19 2 20 1 1 1 8 8 3 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM example Project end date Start 10g A 27g C 42g B 35g E 612g D 517g End 70g 1 7 19 2 20 1 1 1 8 3 128 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM Relation between dates For the start activity (the first activity of a project), the minimum start date is equal to the minimum end date (duration is 0) Early Start Time EST = ES start = EF start For the generic activity, the minimum start date is equal to the maximum of minimum end dates of the previous activities ES i = max (EF P ) = max (ES P + Du P ) For the generic activity, the minimum end date is equal to the minimum start date plus duration EF i = (ES i + Du P ) = max (EF P ) + Du i For the project end activity, the minimum start date is equal to the minimum end date od the network, and correspond to the maximum of the minimum end dates of the final activities Early Finish Time EFT = ES end = EF end = max (EF P ) (warning to the change day effect) </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM Relation between dates If we start the day 1, the example is: Minimum Start Date start = 1 Minimum start date generic activity = max(minimum end dates previous activities) Minimum end date = minimum start date + activity duration End activity minimum start date = max(minimum end date of final activities) Start (1 1) 10g A (1 7) 27g C (1 2) 42g B (8 12) 35g E (8 19) 612g D (3 19) 517g End (20 20) 70g ESEF </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> CLAMDA-IM Project Management Planning Techniques THE PLAN PERT / CPM Relazioni tra date To calculate the maximum dates, we have to go back, starting from the last activity, with the end date located exactly at the target project end date (late). In this example, we consider the maximum end project date the same of the minimum end project date. For activities B,...</li></ul>