chapter - ii solid waste management - environment (sardinia, 2007). effective solid waste...
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CHAPTER - II
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Solid waste is the term now used internationally to describe non-liquid waste
materials arising from domestic, trade, commercial, industrial, agriculture and mining
activities and from the public services. Solid waste comprise countless different materials
such as vegetable waste, papers, glass, plastics, wood, yard clippings, food waste, radioactive
wastes and hazardous waste. Solid wastes are all the wastes arising from human and animal
activities that are normally solids, semi-solids, liquids in containers and those are discarded
or useless or unwanted. The term encompasses the heterogeneous accumulation of (Rao,
1991) agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes etc.
Solid waste generation is a continually growing problem at global, regional and local
levels. There has been a significant increase in municipal solid waste generation in India in
the last few decades. The volume of garbage in Indian cities is increasing. Solid wastes create
one of the most visible environmental problems in our country. The management of
municipal solid waste has become an acute problem due to rapid population growth and
economic development in the country (Ramachandra and Shruthi, 2007). In recent, the
quantity of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly with growing urbanization and
modern lifestyle and its composition changing (sadeeq et al., 2011). One of the serious and
growing potential problems in larger urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal.
Landfill siting is an extremely difficult task to accomplish because the site selection
process depends on different factors and regulations (Yahaya et al., 2010). Environmental
factors are very important because the landfill may affect the surrounding biophysical
environment (Sardinia, 2007). Effective Solid waste management can be achieved by
controlling the waste generation and taking measures for proper collection, storage,
transportation and disposal of solid waste in an environmental and economic manner. Along
with these, includes legal, financial, administrative and proper planning for waste handling
are the techniques for solid waste management. Integrated solid waste management includes
the application of suitable techniques, better management practices and selection of better
technologies for waste disposal and management (Tchobanoglous and Kreith, 2002).
2.2 Sources and Classification of Solid Waste
Based on the source and type of waste, the classification of municipal solid waste is
described below (Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2000).
2.2.1 Domestic/Residential Waste
Domestic waste includes the solid wastes that originate during the household
activities such as cleaning, packaging, gardening, cooking and repairs. The waste material
consists of old books, empty containers, old furniture and newspaper.
2.2.2 Municipal Waste
Municipal waste includes the waste materials arising from the domestic, institutional
and commercial activities. The municipal waste comprises of dead animals, dried leaves,
crushed vehicles, market waste, street waste and crushed vehicles.
2.2.3 Commercial Waste
The waste materials included in the category of commercial waste are classified as
garbage, rubbish, organic, inorganic, and hazardous waste and are arisen in departmental
stores, offices, hotels, shops, lodges, restaurants, business centers, warehouses, markets,
slaughter houses and other commercial establishments. The waste materials comprise of
paper, spoiled and discarded goods and packing material.
2.2.4 Institutional Waste
The waste materials included in the category of institutional waste are those arising
from institutions such as schools, colleges, universities, research institutes, hospitals and
other educational centers. It includes waste materials such as garbage and rubbish in which
some of the waste materials are harmful to human health and the environment.
The garbage includes the animal and vegetable waste and the waste is putrescible in
nature. It consists of wastes resulting from the sale, handling, storage, cooking and
consumption of food. It requires immediate removal of waste handling, storage and disposal.
Because the waste produces foul odors and the waste attracts the insects, flies, rats and
Rubbish includes the waste materials which are non-putrescible in nature except ash.
It consists of both combustible such as paper, brushes, cardboard and wood, and non-
combustible substances such as cans, glass and scrap metals, etc.
Ash result from activities such as the burning of dung, wood, coal and other
combustible materials for heating, cooking and other purposes in houses, small industrial
establishments and institutions. When the huge amount of ash produced in factories and
power plants will come under industrial waste.
2.2.8 Bulky Waste
Bulky waste comprise of tyres, furniture, refrigerators, cookers, vehicle parts, trees,
plastic materials, washing machines, wood etc., arising during the household activities which
cannot be stored in the containers of houses.
2.2.9 Street Waste
Street waste includes the wastes that are collected from parks, streets, walkways and
vacant places. The street waste comprises of plastic, dried leaves, paper, empty cigarette
packs and other empty packets, cardboard and dust. Mostly in developing countries, the
littering of public places is a common problem and in the developing countries manual street
sweeping has seen whereas in developed countries mechanized street sweeping is practiced.
2.2.10 Dead Animals
The dead animals are divided into large animals and small animals that die naturally
or accidentally killed. The large animals are donkeys, cows, sheep and horses which require
immediate removal using special equipment for handling. Small animals are rats, cats, dogs
and rabbits. This category of animals can be disposed by deep burial in special locations.
Otherwise, dead animals attract the flies, insects and causes foul odor and health problems.
2.2.11 Construction and Demolition Waste
These categories of wastes are generated during the activities such as construction,
demolition of commercial buildings, houses and other structures. The construction and
demolition waste materials such as bricks, plumbing materials, concrete, plastics, stones,
heating systems, roofing materials and electrical wires etc., (MoUD, 2000) are mostly non-
2.2.12 Industrial Waste
The waste materials resulting from the manufacturing processes and other operations
from the industries are included in the industrial waste category. This waste should not be
mixed with the municipal solid waste because the waste materials arising from the industries
may be hazardous and non-hazardous. They must be disposed off following the standards
mentioned under the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989.
2.2.13 Biomedical Waste
The biomedical waste is the waste that is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or
immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the
production or testing of biological components (BMW Rules, 1998). The biomedical waste
should be disposed by following the Bio Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules,
1998. According to the characteristics of waste for their treatment and disposal, biomedical
wastes are classified into ten categories. As per the BMW Rules, 1989, the different
categories of biomedical waste are described in table 2.1
Table 2.1 Biomedical Waste Types and Treatment Options
Waste Category Type of Waste Treatment and Disposal Method
Human Anatomical Waste- Human body parts, tissues and
Animal Waste - Animal body parts, tissues, organs, Bleeding
parts, experimental animals used in research, waste generated
by veterinary colleges, hospitals and animal houses.
Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste - Wastes from
laboratory cultures, human and animal cell cultures and
Local autoclaving / microwaving
Waste Sharps - Needles, syringes, scalpels, blades and glass.
Chemical treatment / autoclaving
/microwaving and mutilation /
Discarded Medicine and Cytotoxic drugs - Contaminated,
discarded and outdated medicines.
Incineration / destruction and
drug disposal in securing
Solid Waste - Blooded cotton, plasters, bandages, dressings,
linens, bedding and other materials contaminated with blood.
Incineration / autoclaving /
No.7 Solid Waste - Catheters, tubing, intravenous sets etc., which
are not included under waste sharps.
Disinfection by autoclaving/
chemical treatment/ shredding/
Microwaving and mutilation.