chapter - ii solid waste management - environment (sardinia, 2007). effective solid waste...

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    2.1 Introduction

    Solid waste is the term now used internationally to describe non-liquid waste

    materials arising from domestic, trade, commercial, industrial, agriculture and mining

    activities and from the public services. Solid waste comprise countless different materials

    such as vegetable waste, papers, glass, plastics, wood, yard clippings, food waste, radioactive

    wastes and hazardous waste. Solid wastes are all the wastes arising from human and animal

    activities that are normally solids, semi-solids, liquids in containers and those are discarded

    or useless or unwanted. The term encompasses the heterogeneous accumulation of (Rao,

    1991) agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes etc.

    Solid waste generation is a continually growing problem at global, regional and local

    levels. There has been a significant increase in municipal solid waste generation in India in

    the last few decades. The volume of garbage in Indian cities is increasing. Solid wastes create

    one of the most visible environmental problems in our country. The management of

    municipal solid waste has become an acute problem due to rapid population growth and

    economic development in the country (Ramachandra and Shruthi, 2007). In recent, the

    quantity of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly with growing urbanization and

    modern lifestyle and its composition changing (sadeeq et al., 2011). One of the serious and

    growing potential problems in larger urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal.

    Landfill siting is an extremely difficult task to accomplish because the site selection

    process depends on different factors and regulations (Yahaya et al., 2010). Environmental

    factors are very important because the landfill may affect the surrounding biophysical

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    environment (Sardinia, 2007). Effective Solid waste management can be achieved by

    controlling the waste generation and taking measures for proper collection, storage,

    transportation and disposal of solid waste in an environmental and economic manner. Along

    with these, includes legal, financial, administrative and proper planning for waste handling

    are the techniques for solid waste management. Integrated solid waste management includes

    the application of suitable techniques, better management practices and selection of better

    technologies for waste disposal and management (Tchobanoglous and Kreith, 2002).

    2.2 Sources and Classification of Solid Waste

    Based on the source and type of waste, the classification of municipal solid waste is

    described below (Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2000).

    2.2.1 Domestic/Residential Waste

    Domestic waste includes the solid wastes that originate during the household

    activities such as cleaning, packaging, gardening, cooking and repairs. The waste material

    consists of old books, empty containers, old furniture and newspaper.

    2.2.2 Municipal Waste

    Municipal waste includes the waste materials arising from the domestic, institutional

    and commercial activities. The municipal waste comprises of dead animals, dried leaves,

    crushed vehicles, market waste, street waste and crushed vehicles.

    2.2.3 Commercial Waste

    The waste materials included in the category of commercial waste are classified as

    garbage, rubbish, organic, inorganic, and hazardous waste and are arisen in departmental

    stores, offices, hotels, shops, lodges, restaurants, business centers, warehouses, markets,

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    slaughter houses and other commercial establishments. The waste materials comprise of

    paper, spoiled and discarded goods and packing material.

    2.2.4 Institutional Waste

    The waste materials included in the category of institutional waste are those arising

    from institutions such as schools, colleges, universities, research institutes, hospitals and

    other educational centers. It includes waste materials such as garbage and rubbish in which

    some of the waste materials are harmful to human health and the environment.

    2.2.5 Garbage

    The garbage includes the animal and vegetable waste and the waste is putrescible in

    nature. It consists of wastes resulting from the sale, handling, storage, cooking and

    consumption of food. It requires immediate removal of waste handling, storage and disposal.

    Because the waste produces foul odors and the waste attracts the insects, flies, rats and


    2.2.6 Rubbish

    Rubbish includes the waste materials which are non-putrescible in nature except ash.

    It consists of both combustible such as paper, brushes, cardboard and wood, and non-

    combustible substances such as cans, glass and scrap metals, etc.

    2.2.7 Ash

    Ash result from activities such as the burning of dung, wood, coal and other

    combustible materials for heating, cooking and other purposes in houses, small industrial

    establishments and institutions. When the huge amount of ash produced in factories and

    power plants will come under industrial waste.

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    2.2.8 Bulky Waste

    Bulky waste comprise of tyres, furniture, refrigerators, cookers, vehicle parts, trees,

    plastic materials, washing machines, wood etc., arising during the household activities which

    cannot be stored in the containers of houses.

    2.2.9 Street Waste

    Street waste includes the wastes that are collected from parks, streets, walkways and

    vacant places. The street waste comprises of plastic, dried leaves, paper, empty cigarette

    packs and other empty packets, cardboard and dust. Mostly in developing countries, the

    littering of public places is a common problem and in the developing countries manual street

    sweeping has seen whereas in developed countries mechanized street sweeping is practiced.

    2.2.10 Dead Animals

    The dead animals are divided into large animals and small animals that die naturally

    or accidentally killed. The large animals are donkeys, cows, sheep and horses which require

    immediate removal using special equipment for handling. Small animals are rats, cats, dogs

    and rabbits. This category of animals can be disposed by deep burial in special locations.

    Otherwise, dead animals attract the flies, insects and causes foul odor and health problems.

    2.2.11 Construction and Demolition Waste

    These categories of wastes are generated during the activities such as construction,

    demolition of commercial buildings, houses and other structures. The construction and

    demolition waste materials such as bricks, plumbing materials, concrete, plastics, stones,

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    heating systems, roofing materials and electrical wires etc., (MoUD, 2000) are mostly non-

    biodegradable substances.

    2.2.12 Industrial Waste

    The waste materials resulting from the manufacturing processes and other operations

    from the industries are included in the industrial waste category. This waste should not be

    mixed with the municipal solid waste because the waste materials arising from the industries

    may be hazardous and non-hazardous. They must be disposed off following the standards

    mentioned under the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989.

    2.2.13 Biomedical Waste

    The biomedical waste is the waste that is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or

    immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the

    production or testing of biological components (BMW Rules, 1998). The biomedical waste

    should be disposed by following the Bio Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules,

    1998. According to the characteristics of waste for their treatment and disposal, biomedical

    wastes are classified into ten categories. As per the BMW Rules, 1989, the different

    categories of biomedical waste are described in table 2.1

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    Table 2.1 Biomedical Waste Types and Treatment Options

    Waste Category Type of Waste Treatment and Disposal Method


    Human Anatomical Waste- Human body parts, tissues and


    Incineration/deep burial.


    Animal Waste - Animal body parts, tissues, organs, Bleeding

    parts, experimental animals used in research, waste generated

    by veterinary colleges, hospitals and animal houses.

    Incineration/deep burial.


    Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste - Wastes from

    laboratory cultures, human and animal cell cultures and


    Local autoclaving / microwaving

    / incineration.


    Waste Sharps - Needles, syringes, scalpels, blades and glass.

    Chemical treatment / autoclaving

    /microwaving and mutilation /



    Discarded Medicine and Cytotoxic drugs - Contaminated,

    discarded and outdated medicines.

    Incineration / destruction and

    drug disposal in securing



    Solid Waste - Blooded cotton, plasters, bandages, dressings,

    linens, bedding and other materials contaminated with blood.

    Incineration / autoclaving /


    No.7 Solid Waste - Catheters, tubing, intravenous sets etc., which

    are not included under waste sharps.

    Disinfection by autoclaving/

    chemical treatment/ shredding/

    Microwaving and mutilation.


    Liquid Wa


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