chapter 4: imperial wars and colonial protest

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Chapter 4: Imperial Wars and Colonial Protest. 1754-1774. Julia Pitino. Argument. American colonists saw harsher British policies as a threat to their liberties, resulting in deepened resentment for their motherland that eventually led to the American Revolution. . Why Harsher Policies?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 4: Imperial Wars and Colonial Protest

Chapter 4: Imperial Wars and Colonial Protest1754-1774Julia PitinoArgumentAmerican colonists saw harsher British policies as a threat to their liberties, resulting in deepened resentment for their motherland that eventually led to the American Revolution. Why Harsher Policies?Original policy: salutary neglectLittle direct controlMany laws unenforcedImperial wars lead to reorganization of the empireWhy Harsher Policies? (cont)Imperial Wars: to gain control of colonial tradeFirst Three WarsKing Williams War, Queen Annes War, King Georges WarConflicts between British, Spain, France imperialistsFrench and Indian WarBritish & colonies defending land from FrenchPeace of Paris: Britain wins & gains supremacy in colonies Why Harsher Policies? (cont)After imperial wars, forceful policies are neededBritish Empire needs $ to pay for cost of the wars & to maintain force in coloniesWhigs: colonies should bear most of the costProclamation of 1763: colonial settling beyond Appalachians prohibitedIgnored by colonistsBritish Actions & Colonial ReactionsBritains forceful policies put upon the colonies following 1763 provoke protest and strong reactions. British Actions & Colonial Actions (cont)Sugar Act (1764): Duties on foreign sugarNavigation Acts strictly enforcedQuartering Act:Required colonists to provide food/shelter for British soldiersBritish Actions & Colonial Reactions (cont)Stamp Act:Tax on most printed paper to raise $ for militaryFirst direct taxColonial Reaction to Stamp Act:Patrick Henry demands no taxation while addressing House of BurgessStamp Act Congress decides only representatives can approve taxesSons & Daughters of Liberty turn violentBoycott of British goods

British Actions & Colonial Reactions (cont)Declaratory Act (1766)Repeals Stamp Act but;Parliament may tax & make laws for the colonies in all cases whatsoeverThe Townshend ActsCharles Townshend becomes British chancellorNew duties on imports to pay crown officialsBritish Actions & Colonial Reactions (cont)Colonial Reaction to Townshend ActsJohn Dickinson: no taxation without representationCircular Letter (1768)Eventually Townshend Acts are repealed: damaged trade & generated little revenueThose who are taxed without their own consent, expressed by themselves or their representatives, are slaves. We are taxed without our own consent, expressed by ourselves or our representatives. We are therefore--Slaves.

the Acts made there [in Parliament], imposing duties on the people of this province, with the sole and express purpose of raising a revenue, are infringements of their natural and constitutional rights; because, as they are not represented in the British Parliament, his Majesty's commons in Britain, by those Acts, grant their property without their consent.British Actions & Colonial Reactions (cont)Boston MassacreReaction to presence of British soldiersColonists harass guards who shoot backColonists acquitted, incident used to inflame anti-British sentimentBoston Tea Party:British East India Company suffers due to boycott of British goodsTea Act passes (1773) making British tea cheaper than Dutch smuggled teaBostonians board a ship (carrying tea) arriving at harbor & dump teaBritish Actions & Colonial Reactions (cont)Intolerable Acts:Parliament, king, Lord North angered by Boston Tea PartyRetaliate with a series of harsh actsCoercive Acts (1774): aimed to punish MA colonists & control dissidentsQuebec Act (1774): British enforces Roman Catholicism & non-representational government in its Canadian landsColonial anger: view act as an attack on colonial land & resent new enforcements

New Philosophy deepens divisionsThe EnlightenmentEuropean movement in literature & philosophyAttracts many educated AmericansJohn Locke: natural laws, says citizens should revolt against a government that doesnt protect their rightsBritish policies are seen are seen as denying natural laws, giving colonies reason to revolt

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