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  • Big Idea The U.S. remains isolated from the world affairs as economic and political factors lead to the rise of nationalist/fascist/totalitarian leaders in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, Japan, and Spain.
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  • Europe after Treaty of Versailles
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  • Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia The Failure of Versailles Treaty of Versailles caused anger and resentment Germans felt it wasnt fair nor secure they took the blame for the entire war and were stripped of overseas colonies and border territories Problems not solved by Weimar Republic (democratic government in Germany post- WWI) With no democratic traditions, many countries turned to authoritarian leaders to solve social and economic problems
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  • Joseph Stalin Took over the Soviet Union (Communist) in 1924. Agriculture and Industrial growth were economic goals Abolished all privately owned farms. 2 nd Largest Industrial Power 8-13 million people died
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  • Stalins Crimes Mass Starvation Tens of Millions Mass Murder (Purges) 500,000-1 million
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  • Communism A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common Actual ownership belongs to community or state
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  • Francisco Franco Spanish General, who repelled against Spanish republic. Civil War broke out. 500,000 people died. Franco gains victory in 1939. Became Spains fascist dictator.
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  • Totalitarian Benito Mussolini Government with complete control over citizens. Individuals have no rights. Took control in Italy. Great speaker and appealed to the people as a strong leader.
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  • Fascism Black Shirts Il Duce Stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state above those individuals. Thousands of supporters who marched to Rome Mussolini called himself Il Duce or the leader he achieved efficiency but crushed all opposition making Italy a totalitarian state
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  • Adolf Hitler Facts WWI veteran Leader of the Nationalist Socialist Party Nazis for short Became Chancellor in Germany in 1933 Installed brutal dictatorship
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  • Adolf Hitler Nazism Jobless soldier after WWI. Quickly became a leader due to his powerful speeches. the German brand of fascism, was based on extreme nationalism and racism.
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  • Racial Purification Inferior races (Untermensch) Chancellor (prime minister) Germans & Aryans (blue eyed, blond haired) should be master race. Jews, Slavs, & all nonwhites were to serve the Aryans Appointed in 1933, dismantled the democratic Weimar Republic. Create more living space.
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  • Japan League of Nations Military leaders shared Hitlers belief in needing more living space. Seized control of Manchuria (Chinese province) in 1931. Condemned Japan, but no action taken. Japan drops out.
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  • Germany Italy Pulls out in 1933. 1935, builds up military (violation of the Treaty of Versailles) 1936, sent troops into Rhineland (demilitarized zone) 1936 invaded Ethiopia, independent African country.
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  • The United States Responds Cautiously Neutrality Acts 1935 1936 1937 first two acts outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war. Third act extended the ban on arms sales and loans to nations engaged in civil wars.
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  • FDR reacts Japan launches new attack on China in 1937 Sent arms and supplies to China cause War was not declared on China. FDR met with a lot of criticism because of his actions of trying to lead country into a war.
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  • AUSTRIA AND CZECHOSLAVAKIA FALL Austria Sudetenland German troops march into Austria unopposed on March 12, 1938. Majority of 6 million people were German Western border region of Czechoslovakia.
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  • Neville Chamberlain Munich Agreement British prime minister met with Hitler along with French premier. Promised to protect Czechoslovakia. September 30, 1938- Sudetenland over to Germany without a single shot Hitler said it would be last territorial demand
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  • Winston Churchill Appeasement Chamberlains political rival was not happy about Munich agreement. Giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.
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  • The German Offensive Begins Czechoslovakia Poland March 15, 1939, Germany takes over rest of country. Large German speaking population, eastern neighbor of Soviet Union, aided by France and Britain
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  • Nonaggression pact Blitzkrieg Germany & Soviet Union agree not to attack one another. Also decided to divide Poland between them. Lightning War. Fast tanks, powerful aircraft. Surprise and quickly crush the enemy. September 1, 1939 in Poland. 2 Days later France & Britain declare war.
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  • Phony War Next 3 weeks and Poland ceased to exist. WWII had begun. French & British troops sit on Maginot Line staring at Germans, German troops sit at the Siegfried Line staring back By April 9, 1940, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg
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  • France and Britain Fight on Fall of France Charles de Gaulle June 22, 1940, with help from Italy as they attacked from the south. French general, fled to England. Set up a government in exile.
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  • Battle of Britain 2,000 German planes bomb London for 2 weeks straight Britain used a Radar system to shoot down planes. 185 on Sept 15 of 1940, Hitler calls off invasion Both countries continue to bomb one another.
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  • THE PERSECUTION BEGINS April 7, 1933 Holocaust Hitler orders all non Aryans be removed from government jobs. This is first the move against Jews 11 million people across Europe killed, more than half were Jews
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  • Scapegoat Nuremberg Laws Star of David Jews were blamed for all the problems that Germany had (economy & WWI) 1935, stripped Jews from citizenship, jobs, & property Jews had to wear this bright yellow star on clothes so they can be identified
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  • Kristallnacht November 9-10, 1938, Nazi troops attacked Jewish businesses, homes, & synagogues across Germany. 100 killed, hundreds injured, 30,000 arrested, hundred of synagogues were burned Nazis blamed Jews for the destruction
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  • Refugees Ship of St. Louis France 40,000 Britain 80,000 Palestine 30,000 U.S. 100,000 German ocean liner with 943 passengers. Coast Guard prevented ship from docking in Miami and was forced back to Europe
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  • HITLERS FINAL SOLUTION Genocide In 1939, a deliberate & systematic killing of an entire population. Only of Jews left in Germany, but millions more in territories occupied by Hitler
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  • Enemies of the state Gypsies- Inferior race Freemasons- supporters of the Jewish conspiracy to rule the world Jehovahs Witnesses- refused to join German army and salute Hitler Germans- homosexuals, mentally ill, physically disabled, & incurably ill
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  • Nazi Death Squads Ghettos Hitlers elite Nazi security squandrons (SS) rounded up jews in Poland and shot them on the spot. Jews sent into overcrowded cities in Poland; barbed wire & stone walls
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  • Concentration camps Warehouse for undesirable Hunger, humiliation, work that almost always ended in death Overcrowded barracks shared meager meals. Inmates worked dawn to dusk, 7 days a week till they collapsed. Those who were weak were killed.
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  • THE FINAL STAGE Poison Gas Built 6 death camps in Poland Each camp had several huge gas chambers in which 12,000 people could be killed a day
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  • Auschwitz Prisoners separated into 2 groups (workers & would be killed) Belongings left behind and would get later Group that was being killed was led to gas chamber, told they were going to shower and handed a bar of soap each
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  • Cyanide Gas Used to kill the inmates while cheerful music played. Some were buried in mass graves Crematoriums were used at some camps as well to burn the dead and living 6 million Jews died in the death camps
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  • U.S. MUSTERS ITS FORCES Cash and Carry Possibly too late Sept. 1939, Roosevelt persuaded Congress to allow warring nations to buy U.S. arms as long as they paid cash and transported them in their own ships France falls in summer of 1940 & Britain under attack
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  • Axis Powers Roosevelt Responds Germany, Italy, & Japan (the Triparite Pact) sign a mutual defense treaty. Each nation agreed to come to defense if either nation was attacked by U.S. Sends Britain 500,000 rifles, 80,000 machine guns, traded 50 old destroyers for military bases in Caribbean and Newfoundland
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