world war looms chapter 16 dictators threaten world peace section 1

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Slide 2 WORLD WAR LOOMS CHAPTER 16 Slide 3 Dictators Threaten World Peace Section 1 Slide 4 At the end of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles caused anger & resentment New democratic governments, hurt by economic & social problems, floundered & turned to dictatorships. Slide 5 In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin came to power in 1924. He was a ruthless leader who let nothing stand in his way. Stalin focused on creating a model communist state. Slide 6 Stalin created a TOTALITARIAN government. (a government w/complete control over its citizens) Individuals had no rights, & the government put down all opposition. Slide 7 At the same time, Benito Mussolini was creating a totalitarian state in Italy His political movement was called Fascism (Strong, centralized government headed by a dictator which grow out of extreme nationalism.) Mussolini was a passionate public speakerBenito Mussolini and Adolf HitlerAdolf Hitler Slide 8 Another Fascist party came to power in Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. His political philosophy was called Nazism. He hoped to unite all German-speaking people into a new German empire, or Reich. Slide 9 In 1932, the Nazi Party gained power. Hitler became chancellor in January 1933. He did away w/the Weimar Republic & set up the Third Reich, or 3 rd German empire. Slide 10 Hitler believed that Germans- especially blond, blue-eyed Aryans- were the master race. According to Hitler, Aryans were meant to have power over all inferior races, such as Jews & nonwhites. Hitler believed Germany needed to expand-gain territory- so that the German people could thrive. Slide 11 If I can send the flower of the German nation into the hell of war without the smallest pity for the spilling of precious German blood, then surely I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin..." Adolf Hitler If I can send the flower of the German nation into the hell of war without the smallest pity for the spilling of precious German blood, then surely I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin..." Adolf Hitler Slide 12 Meanwhile, in Asia, military leaders had taken over Japan: They believed Japan needed more land & resources. They believed Japan needed more land & resources. Japan attacked Manchuria, a province of China, in 1931. Japan attacked Manchuria, a province of China, in 1931. The League of Nations protested, but Japan left the League & kept Manchuria. The League of Nations protested, but Japan left the League & kept Manchuria. Slide 13 This cartoon of 1933, by the British cartoonist David Low, is entitled: 'The Doormat'. It shows a Japanese soldier trampling all over the League, whilst League officials bow down before him and the British Foreign Secretary John Simon powders the League's nose using a 'Face-saving kit'. This cartoon of 1933, by the British cartoonist David Low, is entitled: 'The Doormat'. It shows a Japanese soldier trampling all over the League, whilst League officials bow down before him and the British Foreign Secretary John Simon powders the League's nose using a 'Face-saving kit'. Slide 14 This cartoon of 1933 shows the Japanese actions destroying international agreements such as the Kellogg Pact and the League of Nations Covenant. This cartoon of 1933 shows the Japanese actions destroying international agreements such as the Kellogg Pact and the League of Nations Covenant. Slide 15 The Leagues failure to stop Japan made Hitler & Mussolini bolder. Slide 16 Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland & rebuilt the German army. These acts broke the Versailles Treaty. Slide 17 Mussolini captured the African nation of Ethiopia. The leader of Ethiopia asked the League for help. When the League did nothing, he said, It is us today, It will be you tomorrow. Slide 18 In Spain, General Francisco Franco led a rebellion to overthrow the elected government. Hitler & Mussolini supported Franco w/troops & weapons. When Franco won in 39, Europe had another totalitarian government. Slide 19 Q: What 5 major countries were ruled by dictatorships in the 1930s? Slide 20 The U.S. responded cautiously to the rise of dictators Isolationism became more popular. Most Americans wanted the U.S. to stay out of foreign conflicts. Protest march to prevent American involvement in WWII Slide 21 U.S. passed the Neutrality Acts These laws banned loans or arms sale to nations at war. Slide 22 Austria & Czechoslovakia Fall How did Britain & France react to Hitlers aggression? Slide 23 Hitler decided that the new living space the German people needed would come from nearby Austria & Czechoslovakia. And he was willing to use force to do it! Slide 24 In March 1938, German troops marched into Austria. They met no opposition. Germany announced an Anschluss, or union w/Austria. Slide 25 Then Hitler claimed that the Czechs were mistreating German speaking people in an area called the Sudetenland. He massed troops on the border. Slide 26 France & Britain promised to defend Czechoslovakia. Their leaders met w/Hitler in Munich, Germany. Hitler promised that the Sudetenland would be his last territorial demand. Adolf HitlerAdolf Hitler and Neville Chamberlain after the Munich Agreement which gave Czechoslovakia to HitlerNeville ChamberlainMunich Agreement Slide 27 Neville Chamberlain was the British prime minister who signed the Munich Pact in September 1938. It gave the Sudetenland to Germany. Slide 28 MAP OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA SHOWING THE SUDETENLAND Slide 29 Another British leader, Winston Churchill, disagreed. He called the Pact dishonorable appeasement. Churchill predicted that appeasement would eventually lead to war. Slide 30 Hitler did not keep the promise he made at Munich. In March of 39, he conquered the rest of Czechoslovakia. Slide 31 Then Hitler began to claim that Germans living in Poland were being persecuted. Many thought Hitler would never attack Poland. They thought he would be afraid that the Soviet Union, on Polands eastern border, would then fight Germany. Slide 32 But Germany & Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact, an agreement not to fight each other. In a secret part of this treaty, Hitler & Stalin also agreed to divide Poland b/w them. Slide 33 Soviet Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov signs the German-Soviet nonaggression pact; Joachim von Ribbentrop and Josef Stalin stand behind him. Moscow, August 23, 1939, from Patch-NA Slide 34 On September 1, 1939, Hitler launched World War II by attacking Poland. Slide 35 Soviet and German soldiers meeting after the invasion of Polandinvasion of Poland Slide 36 The Germans used a new strategy called a blitzkrieg, or lightning war. They used tanks & planes to take the enemy by surprise & crush them quickly. German troops dismantle a Polish border checkpoint, September 1, 1939, as World War II begins. September 11939World War II Slide 37 Here a Nazi unit is en route to Poland at the end of September, 1939. Handwritten on the side of the train car is, "We are going to Poland to thrash the Jews." Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydw Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 26. Slide 38 Britain & France declared war on Germany! Poland fell to the Germans in a month Slide 39 Meanwhile, the Soviets attacked Poland from the east, & grabbed some of its territory. Slide 40 For the next few months, not much happened. This was called the phony war. French & British troops gathered on the French border. German troops also waited. Slide 41 Meanwhile, Stalin seized regions that the Soviet Union had lost in WWI. He took the Baltic states in September & October 39 Finland resisted, & was conquered only after fierce fighting in March 1940. Slide 42 In April, Hitler launched surprise invasions of Denmark & Norway. Then in May, he quickly took the Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg. Slide 43 Germany attacked France in May 1940. Meanwhile, Italy joined the war on Germanys side. The Italians attacked France from the south. France surrendered quickly. Slide 44 Slide 45 The Germans occupied the northern part of France while a Nazi-controlled puppet government, called the Vichy government, ruled the southern part of France. Presidential flag of Vichy France Slide 46 The French general Charles de Gaulle set up a French government in exile in England. He promised to free France from the Nazis. General de Gaulle reviewing troops General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC during the war.BBC Slide 47 Hitler now made plans to invade Britain. He began with air raids over England. Nazi GermanNazi German LuftwaffeLuftwaffe BritishBritish Royal Air Force and alliesRoyal Air Force Slide 48 The Germans bombed London night after night in August 1940. The British air force (RAF) defended Britain against these attacks. They used a new technology called radar, & shot down hundreds of German planes. Slide 49 This air war was called the Battle of Britain. The new prime minister, Winston Churchill, rallied the spirits of the British people & declared that Britain would never surrender. Hitler gave up the idea of invading Britain. Dec. 29, 1940 - St. Paul's Cathedral emerges from the flames during one of the most devastating raids Slide 50 THE HOLOCAUST Section 3 Slide 51 Slide 52 Part of Hitlers plan for Germany was to make the country racially pure. In 1933, Hitler ordered all non-Aryans out of government jobs. Then Hitler began an organized persecution of non-Aryans, particularly of Jews. Slide 53 A dog lies on a park bench which is marked "Nur fuer Arier!" [Only for Aryans] Date: Mar 1938 Locale: Vienna, Austria Credit: USHMM, courtesy of Unknown Provenance Copyright: USHMM Slide 54 Civilians ride a streetcar in Belgrade that is marked "Fuer Juden Verboten" (Forbidden to Jews). Date: 1941 - 1942 Locale: Belgrade, [Serbia] Yugoslavia; Serbi

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