c m h alexander and hellenism

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There is nothing impossible to him who will try. - Alexander the Great

The MacedoniansNorth of GreeceGreeks considered them foreignersMacedonian King Phillip II saw Greek city-states weaknessBegan raising armyConquered northern territories

The GreeksDemosthenes warned the GreeksCouldnt agree on a way to defend themselves338 B.C. Macedonians defeated the Greeks at ChaeroneaGreece now ruled by King Phillip IIPlanned to attack Persians next

Alexander the GreatKing Phillip II was murderedHis son, Alexander took overJust turned 20Student of AristotleLove sport, especially riding BucephalusInherited Macedonia and all of GreeceGreeks thought they could regain their freedom

The Conquests of AlexanderWorked w/ Greeks to attack PersiaGreeks willing to fight for himMarched on to PersiaDominated first Persian army at the Granicus River

The Conquests of AlexanderKing Darius (Persia) tried to negotiateAlexander didntPlanned to conquer all of Persian empireHeaded to conquer EgyptAccepted Alexander as a liberatorNamed him PharaohFounded AlexandriaMoved east - to King Darius at GaugamelaAttacked King Darius and his huge army

The Conquests of AlexanderConquered Babylon, Susa, PersepolisNow ruled Greece, Egypt, Phoenicia, Palestine, Babylonia, Assyria, Asia Minor and Persia

Conquests of AlexanderLeft Persia, rode to IndiaKing Porus (India) heard he was comingWaited on far side of riverAlexanders troops crossed the river and defeated the army

End of Alexanders CampaignTroops got tired, wanted to go homeAlexander agreed to turn backSpring 323 B.C. they had reached BabylonAlexander planned to unify his empireDied from a fever weeks later

Conquests of Alexander

Dividing Alexanders KingdomAntigonusKing of MacedoniaControl of Greek city-statesPtolemyEgyptBecame PharaohSeleucusPersian empireKnown as Seleucid Kingdom

HellenismB/c of Alexander, Greek culture spread and blended with Egyptian, Persian, Indian cultureInfluenced: language, trade, development, science, technology, math, philosophy, art

Hellenism - LanguageLanguage:Koine - commonInfluenced by GreekSharing language = sharing ideas

Hellenism - TradeAlexandria became trading capitalPopulation 1/2 millionAccess to the seasCommerce helped city grow, prosperIncreased cultural mixing

Hellenism - DevelopmentBroad streets lined with statuesTomb for AlexanderMuseumArt galleriesZooBotanical gardensDining hallInstitute for studyAlexandrian LibraryProduced brilliant scholarsPharos - lighthouse overlooking harbor

Hellenism - AstronomyAristarchusEstimated the sun larger than EarthProposed that the Earth and planets revolve around the sunPut planets in proper orderEratosthenesUsed geometry to compute Earths circumferenceInvented leap dayCreated map of the world

Hellenism - Math and PhysicsEuclidWrote ElementsWork is the basis for geometryArchimedesEstimated value of Explained the laws of leversArchimedes screwCompound pulley

Hellenism - ArchimedesArchimedes screwLaw of Levers

Hellenism - PhilosophyFocused on how people should live their livesStoicism:Founded by ZenoLive life in harmony with will of god(s)Desires were distractionsPromoted social unityFocus on what can be controlledEpicureanism:Founded by EpicurusGods ruled the universe, had no interest in humansReality (truth) is what could be perceived by the sensesGreatest good is virtuous behavior, absence of painHarmony of body, mind

Hellenism - ArtMoved away from idealized formsRealism New subjectsMore naturalUsed bronze, metalsSculpture flourishedColossus of RhodesOver 100 feet highNike - winged victory

For next classDistribute Review SheetsReview for Academic Olympiad next classTEST 3/5 EVEN, 3/6 ODDG-SPRITE Due 3/5 EVEN, 3/6 ODDTerm Corrections - Due 3/5 EVEN, 3/6 ODD

****His son, Alexander took overJust turned 20 - born 356 B.C.Student of AristotleLove sport, especially riding Bucephalus

****Left Persia, rode to IndiaKing Porus heard of his comingWaited on far side of Hydaspes RiverAlexanders troops crossed the river and defeated the army

*Troops got tired11 years of fightingEndured terrible conditionsAlexander was disappointed

*******Alexandrian LibraryHalf a million papyrus scrolls of ancient literatureProduced brilliant scholarsLiterary criticism, commentary

***AristarchusEstimated the sun was 300 times larger than EarthEratosthenesUsed geometry to compute Earths circumference at 28,000 - 29,000 milesActually 24,600

**ArchimedesEstimated value of - the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter