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  • Hellenism

  • Alexander the Great


  • Alexander the Macedonian

  • Unifying the EmpireAlexander encouraged intermarriages, setting an example by marrying a Persian princess himself. He placed soldiers from all the provinces in his army. He introduced a uniform currency system throughout the empire and promoted trade and commerce. He encouraged the spread of Greek ideas, customs, and laws into Asia. When he heard that some of his provincial officials ruled unjustly, he replaced them. To receive recognition as the supreme ruler, he required the provinces to worship him as a god.

  • Arrian of Nicomedia on Weddings at SusaThen he also celebrated weddings at Susa, both his own and those of his Companions. He himself married Barsine, the eldest of Darius' daughters, and, according to Aristobulus, another girl as well, Parysatis, the youngest of the daughters of Ochus. He had already married previously Roxane, the daughter of Oxyartes of Bactria.He gave Drypetis to Hephaestion, she too a daughter of Darius and a sister of his own wife; his intention was that the children of Hephaestion should be cousins to his own children. To Craterus he gave Amastris daughter of Oxyathres, brother of Darius, and to Perdiccas the daughter of Atropates, satrap of Media. To Ptolemy the bodyguard and to Eumenes the royal secretary he gave the daughters of Artabazus, Artacama to one and Artonis to the other. To Nearchus he gave the daughter of Barsine and Mentor, and to Seleucus the daughter of Spitamenes of Bactria. Similarly he gave to the other Companions the noblest daughters of the Persians and Medes, some eighty in all. The marriages were celebrated according to Persian custom. Chairs were placed for the bridegrooms in order, and after the drinks the brides came in and sat down, each by the side of her groom. They took them by the hand and kissed them; the king began the ceremony, for all the weddings took place together. More than any action of Alexander this seemed to show a popular and comradely spirit. The bridegrooms after receiving their brides led them away, each to his own home, and to all Alexander gave a dowry. And as for all the Macedonians who had already married Asian women, Alexander ordered a list of their names to be drawn up; they numbered over 10,000, and Alexander offered them all gifts their wedding.

  • Hellenistic Period332BCE Alexander the Great conquers Palestine323BCE Alexander diesDiadochi, Ptolemy in Egypt, Seleucus in Syria301-201BCE Ptolemaic RuleAllowed to continue as semiautonomous201BCE Seleucid conquest of Palestine175-171 Jason High Priestbribes Antiochus IV for high priesthoodbuilds gymnasium in Jerusalem which becomes a polis Antioch171-167 Menelaus High PriestConverts temple into pagan shrine, YHVH=Zeus=Baal Shamin168-164 Maccabean Revolt 167-166 Antiochus IV decrees persecution164 Judah conquers Jerusalem and rededicates the Temple

  • HannukahThe Maccabean Revolt

  • Why did Antiochus Persecute the Jews?He was crazy, nervous, eccentric.May have hastened the persecution but not caused it.He was a Great Hellenizer and unifierBut only for political ends by making poleis, not cultural.The Jewish Hellenizers asked for the decrees.Decrees result from a civil war.

  • Why is Hanukah 8 Days?

  • Winter Solstice Holiday '. : - ' , - ' , : ( ) '. ": , : , , , ' [], , : , , , , . ": , , ; ": , ! [] . ": , , : , , , [] , , : .

  • Winter SolsticeBabylonian Talmud, Avodah Zara 8aOur Rabbis taught: When Adam saw the day getting gradually shorter, he said, Woe is me, perhaps because I have sinned, the world around me is being darkened and returning to its state of chaos and confusion; this then is the kind of death to which I have been sentenced from Heaven! So he began keeping an eight days fast. But as he observed the winter equinox and noted the day getting increasingly longer, he said, This is the world's course, and he set forth to keep an eight days festivity. In the following year he appointed both as festivals. Now, he fixed them for the sake of Heaven, but the [heathens] appointed them for the sake of idolatry.

  • Like SukkothII Maccabees 10Now Maccabeus and his followers, the Lord leading them on, recovered the temple and the city;2. they tore down the altars that had been built in the public square by the foreigners, and also destroyed the sacred precincts.3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they offered incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence.4. When they had done this, they fell prostrate and implored the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations.5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev.6. They celebrated it for eight days with rejoicing, in the manner of the festival of booths, remembering how not long before, during the festival of booths, they had been wandering in the mountains and caves like wild animals.7. Therefore, carrying ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.8. They decreed by public edict, ratified by vote, that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year.9. Such then was the end of Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes.

  • Lit for Eight Days ? : " , . , , , , . .

  • Eight Metal Spits ( ) " ( ' ") ,

  • Josephus is in the DarkJosephus, Antiquities of the Jews 12:7Now Judas celebrated the festival of the restoration of the sacrifices of the temple for eight days, and omitted no sort of pleasures thereon; but he feasted them upon very rich and splendid sacrifices; and he honored God, and delighted them by hymns and psalms. Nay, they were so very glad at the revival of their customs, when, after a long time of intermission, they unexpectedly had regained the freedom of their worship, that they made it a law for their posterity, that they should keep a festival, on account of the restoration of their temple worship, for eight days. And from that time to this we celebrate this festival, and call it Lights. I suppose the reason was, because this liberty beyond our hopes appeared to us; and that thence was the name given to that festival. Judas also rebuilt the walls round about the city, and reared towers of great height against the incursions of enemies, and set guards therein. He also fortified the city Bethsura, that it might serve as a citadel against any distresses that might come from our enemies.

  • Dreidl

  • The long nights of Hanukkah were ideal for games and play which, prohibited during the year (the main reason: waste of time which should be devoted to the study of the Torah), were allowed on this occasion. The most popular game, especially with children, was trendl (dreidl; a top; in modern Hebrew sevivon) whose four sides were inscribed with the Hebrew letters S,h,g,n, standing for the words: MS hyhlvdgsn (nes gadol hayah sham, a great miracle occurred there), in Israel the S is replaced by p, the initial of hp (poh, here). The dreidl is an example of how foreign material was ingeniously Judaized: the original medieval dice used in Germany by gamblers was inscribed with the four letters: N, G, H, and S, which are the initials nichts (nothing), ganz (all), halb (half), and stellein (put in). The four Hebrew parallel letters of the dice which became sanctified have the same numerical value as that of the word Messiah (Shgn=HyQm=358) and appropriate conclusions were consequently reached. Cards were also Judaized and special Jewish card sets, inscribed with Hebrew letters and illustrated with Jewish pictures, were used. Encyclopedia Judaica Folklore

  • From the Hasmoneans to Roman Revolt

  • Elephant fell on him

  • Judah the Maccabee167-160 BCELed the revolt against the SeleucidsPurified the Temple in 164 BCE

  • JonathanRuler 161-143 BCEBrother of Judahfirst Hasmonean to be High Priest in 153 BCE

  • SimonEthnarch and High Priest142-135 BCEIs granted tax exemption from Demetrius IIRemoves Seleucid garrison in JerusalemGains total political independenceMurdered by his son-in-law together with two older sons

  • John HyrcanusEthnarch and High PriestSon of Simon134-104 BCEForced the Idumeans to convert (including Antipaters father, grandfather of Herod)Destroys Samaritan Temple in 128BCE

  • Aristobulus IKing and High Priest104-103BCESon of John HyrcanusFirst to call himself kingImprisons mother and three brothers. Kills another brother.Married to Salome Alexandra

  • Alexander YannaiKing and High Priest103-76 BCESon of Johan HyrcanusMarried Salome Alexandra, his brothers widowPracticed Sadduecean law and was pelted by Etrogim. Kills 6,000 Jews in retaliations.Killed 50,000 in civil war.Crucified 800 PhariseesAdvises his wife before dying to yield to the Pharisees!

  • Salome Alexandra & SonsSalome is queen of Judea 76-67 BCEHer two sons Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II fight over the crown. Both appeal for help from the Romans.Pompey imprisons Aristobulus II