apartheid notes

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Notes from Apartheid Lecture, background information to Kaffir Boy.

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    APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA

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    WHAT IS APARTHEID?

    Definition: Social and political policy of racial segregation anddiscrimination, enforced by white minority governments in

    South Africa from 1948-1994

    Apartheid = apartness(in Afrikaans)

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    BEGINNING OF APARTHEID

    The policy itself goes back to 1650s with the arrival of the

    Dutch and the British

    1930s: The termapartheidis created and widely spread

    1940s: apartheid is the National Partys slogan

    1948: Afrikaner Nationalists come into power and put

    apartheid into action as the law

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    APARTHEID IN ACTION

    1950: Population Registration Act is put into place

    4 racial categories are created:1. White

    2. Colored(mixed race)

    3. Bantu(Black African)

    4.

    Asian(Indians and Pakistanis) Group Areas Act of 1950: Assigns races to different residential

    sections to keep people separated 3.5 million non-whites are

    removed from their homes and placed into segregated

    neighborhoods

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    SEPARATE & UNEQUAL

    Segregated housing,education, medical

    care

    Black citizens must

    carry papers Mixed marriages/

    relations are illegal

    Blacks cannot own

    land Blacks cannot own

    businesses without

    permits

    Blacks were purposefully givennotably inferior resources than

    whites

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    POLICE BRUTALITY & ENFORCEMENT

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    OPPOSITION TO APARTHEID

    Black political groups being vocalizing their opposition(violence, strikes, demonstrations)

    International community denounces apartheid in South Africa

    1985: US and Great Britain develop economic sanctions against

    South Africa until further notice

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    SOWETO PROTESTSJune 16, 1976 response to teaching in Afrikaans

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    ANTI APARTHEID LEADERS

    DONALD WOODS GOVAN MBEKI

    MARTIN THEMBISILE HANI

    STEPHEN BANTU BIKO

    NELSON MANDELA

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    BANTU STEPHEN BIKO

    December 18, 1946

    September 12,

    1977

    Black is beautiful

    A student leader who

    creates the Black

    Consciousness

    Movement

    Taken into police

    custody and later

    pronounced dead

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    NELSON MANDELA

    July 18, 1918

    December 5, 2013

    Served 27 years in

    jail for conspiracy to

    overthrow the state

    President of African

    National Congress

    (1991-1997)

    First generally

    elected president of

    South Africa

    (1994-1999)

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    THE OFFICIAL END OF APARTHEID

    Early 1990s: President F.W. De Klerk begins to dismantle thesystem

    First step of releasing imprisoned black leaders and activists

    1994: Constitution is re-written and free, general elections are

    held

    First elected president was Nelson Mandela, elected by the

    people