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    75THE CONCORD REVIEW

    Elizabeth Lee Jemison is at Princeton . She wrote th is paper at St. Marys

    Episcopal School in Memp his, Tennessee, for Ms. Joan Traffas Hon ors

    World H istory II course in the 2003-2004 academic year.

    THE NAZI INFLUENCE

    IN TH E FORMATION OF APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    South African apar theid was a system developed to p ro-tect the supremacy of Afrikaans-speaking whites and to repress

    non-white groups through a policy of almost complete separation .

    The Afrikaner people, the descendants of the first Dutch settlersin southern Africa, were the dominant white minority and , once

    un ified beh ind the cause of apartheid, formed a majority of the all-

    white electorate. Apar theid, the Afrikaans word for separateness,

    began as a govern mental system after the elections of 1948 when

    the Afrikaner Nationalist Party, became the majority Party, and

    this system lasted until 1994. The Afrikaner white population

    developed the apartheid system in 1948 in part as an outgrowth of

    the ideology of Nazi Germany, an ideology the Afrikaners readilyaccepted because of the affinity they felt towards German s, and

    because they feared being dominated by the English minority who

    had previously controlled the coun try.

    The desire of the Afrikaners for complete power in South

    Africa began when the British took over the Cape area in 1806, in

    an effort to p revent Napoleon from gaining control of the region.

    The introduction of another European group vying for power

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    76 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    served to awaken Afrikaner nationalism. The British who settled in

    the Cape area in the ear ly 19th century brought with th em concepts

    of the 18th century Enlightenment and the pro-business liberalism

    of the 19th century. These ideas conflicted sharply with the con ser-

    vative Calvinist ideology of the Dutch who h ad settled South Africa

    beginning in th e mid-17th cen tury. As the result of the an ti-slavery

    lobby in Britain and of the efforts of Christian missionaries to end

    racial prejud ice, the British advocated a lessen ing of segregation

    to allow some non-whites to participate at least partially in the

    white-dominated society. Overall, the English possessed a more

    advanced culture an d lifestyle than the Dutch living at the Cape,

    so the Dutch were likely to be absorbed into a colonial British

    society as secon d-class citizen s. Indignan t about the possibility of

    such a fate and without sufficient skill to fend off the British, man y

    of the Dutch Boers moved fur ther inland to areas to the northwest

    of the Cape area beginning in 1835. These Afrikaners or

    Voortrekkers conquered the land of native African tribes and

    established au tonomous Boer republics. There, Afrikaners beganto cultivate an Afrikaner culture.1

    These Afrikaner or Boer republics began to prosper,

    especially after the discovery of gold an d diamonds within their

    lands. This new-found wealth, however, worked to the detr imen t

    of the Boer republics because when the British learned of the gold

    and diamonds to be found further inland , they vied for control.

    The conflicts erupting from the attempt on the part of the British

    to incorporate th e Boer republics into th e British Empire even tu-

    ally caused two Boer Wars. The first of these lasted from 1881-1882

    and the second from 1899-1902. During these wars, the British

    suppressed and mistreated Afrikaners. The British created volun -

    tary concentration camps during the second Boer War where

    many women and children came for protection, yet conditions in

    these camps were such that 26,000 Afrikaners died of disease and

    starvation. Towards the end of the second Boer War, the Britishbegan to burn Boer farmsdestroying crops and razing home-

    steads. These wars illustrated the dangers of two self-proclaimed

    Christian nations going to war against each other when both

    nations believed in the same God and both were certain that God

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    77THE CONCORD REVIEW

    justified all their actions. 2 Th e Freethinker, a liberal English journal,

    reported in October 1899, The Boer has a Mauser rifle in one

    hand and a Dutch Bible in the other, while the Britisher hasweapon s in both hands and a Bible behind his back...Each informs

    the God of that book which side he ought to take in the quarrel.3

    Ultimately, the British gained control of the Boer Republics with

    the Treaty of Vereeniging of 1902.

    Though the Afrikaners were rou ted, many loyal Afrikaners

    chose to destroy their weapon s rather than surrender th em to the

    British, while still others accepted deportation rather than swearallegiance to Britain.4 Despite th eir defeat, many Boers felt pr ide

    that while Britain used 448,000 soldiers in the war where 7,000 of

    them died, the Boers never h ad more th an 70,000 soldiers ( rarely

    more than 40,000) and most of these were civilians. Only 4,000

    Boers died in th e war. This pr ide in their military record evolved

    into a new wave of Afrikaner nationalism. Their defeat after

    bloody wars made them more bitter towards the British than if

    Britain had seized control of the Boer republics withou t a struggle.5

    This century of conflict (1806-1902) encouraged Afrikaner unity

    and a strong anti-British attitude that would serve as an initial

    impetus for German sympathy culminating in intense pro-Nazism

    in th e mid-20th century.

    The extent of Afrikaner anti-British sentiment was most

    eviden t in Afrikaners opposition to th e leadership of Jan Chris-

    tian Smuts. Smuts, though an Afrikaner himself, was willing tonegotiate with the British; he served in a variety of offices in British-

    controlled South Africa including two terms as prime minister.

    Smuts had fought on the Boer side of the second Boer War but

    later became active in seeking compromise between the two sides

    by leading the Boer negotiations for surrender as the Transvaal

    State Attorney. Smuts explained the Boer position,

    We are n ot h ere as an army but as a people...Everyone rep resents the

    Afrikaner peop le...They call up on us to avoid all measures which maylead to the decline and extermination of the Afrikaner people...We

    commen ced this struggle and continued it to th is moment because

    we wished to maintain our independence...But we may not sacrifice

    the Afrikaner people for that independence. As soon as we are

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    78 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    convinced th at, human ly speaking, there is no reasonable chance to

    retain our indepen dence as republics, it clearly becomes our duty to

    stop the struggle in order that we may not perhaps sacrifice ourpeop le and ou r future for a mere idea which cannot be realized.6

    As the result of his efforts to lead the post-war n egotiations, Smuts

    played crucial roles in convincing Britain to give Afrikaners gen-

    eral auton omy and in uniting the defeated Boer republics with

    British provinces to form the Un ion of South Africa in 1910.

    Smuts belief that Britain h ad the right to rule South Africa

    earn ed him a pro-British label and alienated man y fervent Afrikaner

    nationalists. The first evidence of th is conflict appeared in 1914 at

    the beginning of World War I when Smuts fought to en d a pro-

    German rebellion led by Afrikaners. Smuts opposition to the

    rebellion pr imarily caused the formation of the Afrikaner Nation-

    alist Party later that year by J.B.M. Hertzog who wanted to make

    British and Afrikaner cultures equal but separate entities.7 Th e

    Nationalist Party grew in strength from 1914 until 1948 when it

    gained a majority. From that political vantage, it was able to enactits policies of apartheid th at it developed during th is per iod of

    ascendan cy. The Party became increasingly devoted to Afrikaner

    sup remacy rather than Hertzogs initial policy of equality between

    the two white groups.

    In 1919 Smuts had become prime minister when his pro-

    British Union Party was still the majority party. Upon entering

    office, he experienced dissent from the Afrikaners who viewed

    him as a British agent for h is belief that the Un ion of South Africa

    did not have the right to secede from the British empire. In th e

    wake of his experience with the pro-German rebellion in 1914,

    Smuts was very cautious in his opposition to the Afrikaners.8 After

    he lost power to Hertzog in 1924, Smuts became more politically

    astute and aware of the strength of his opposition. Smuts and

    Hertzog reconciled their differen ces to form the Un ited Party in

    1933 in which Smuts served as deputy pr ime minister un til Hertzogresigned from the government in 1939, when South Africa en-

    tered World War II supporting the Allies. Hertzogs resignation

    made Smuts very aware of the division among South Africans in

    their opin ions on World War II an d of the possibility of a civil war

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    79THE CONCORD REVIEW

    resulting between the South Africans of British descent who were

    pro-Allies and the Afrikaners who were pro-Nazi.9 Smuts leading

    South African forces on the side of the British in World War IIangered the more conservative Afrikaners whose position the

    newspaper,Die Burger, captured when it posed the question, Why

    should we fight for Britain, the only country which has ever

    attacked us?10 Although he was an Afrikaner, J. C. Smuts was the

    object of many Afrikaners frustrations at the failed attempts at

    Afrikaner independence, and he ironically became a symbol of

    oppressive British imperialism. In an attempt to distance them-

    selves from Smuts, many Afrikaners aligned themselves with Ger-

    many against the old enemy, Britain. Anti-British sentiment was

    not a d irect cause of the bu lk of pro-German and later p ro-Nazi

    sentiment in South Africa, but it contr ibuted in laying the ground-

    work for stronger ideological identification with Germany.

    Where an ti-British sen timen t was un able to produce last-

    ing German sympathies, ideological identification with German

    nationalism especially through Afrikaners adoption of the con-cept of a volkgeist forged strong ties between Afrikaners and

    Germans. Johann von H erder, an early romantic German nation-

    alist coined the term volkin hisIdeas of a Philosophy of Human History

    to describe the cultural heritage of the common people in an y

    particular area; Herder called the character d istinctive to a culture

    its volkgeist. A later German philosopher, J. G. Fichte, built on

    Herders concepts ofvolkan d volkgeistby claiming in hisAddresses

    to the German Nation that the German volkgeistwas superior to th at

    of other cultures. Fichtes theor ies, first expressed in 1808, intro-

    duced the concept of German supremacy that became the first

    seeds of Nazism. Afrikaners adop ted this concept of a volkfor th eir

    own purposes. The volk stood for the identity of the common

    people, so Afrikaners used it to glorify the Voortrekkers who

    traveled deeper into Africa, conquered native tribes, and estab-

    lished the Boer Republics; they were the paragons of Afrikaneridealism.

    In addition, many Afrikaners were of German as well as

    Dutch ancestry and shared a common bond with Germans through

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    80 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    their identification with Protestantism. Most Afrikaner students

    who traveled to Europe to pursue their post-graduate stud ies at a

    large university studied in Holland or Germany rather thanEngland despite the fact that more of these students spoke En-

    glish, not German. Several future leaders of the apartheid era

    encoun tered Nazism while studying in Germany.11

    Strong pro-German sen timent was evident as ear ly as 1914

    when German n ationalism caused an Afrikaner rebellion against

    British ru le. Many Afrikaners opposed the Versailles Treaty end-

    ing World War I. They viewed it as a cruel domination of thealready defeated Germans. Even Smuts attempted to persuade th e

    British to negotiate a less debilitating treaty with Germany.12 As the

    Nazi Party gained power in Germany, Afrikaners felt an inclina-

    tion to support Nazism as both Nazism an d th eir own Voor trekker

    heritage relied h eavily on the idea ofvolkto promote the concepts

    of racial supremacy. Nazis and Afrikaners construed the concept

    ofvolkto permit a form of xenoph obia that would p reserve their

    Western Christian tradition from the dangers Asian and Sovietpowers posed.13 Afrikaners adopted Hitlers concept of a master

    race and Nazi German n ationalism to th eir Afrikaner situation.14

    Nazi influence in shaping the ideology of Afrikaners was not the

    primary cause of Afrikaner belief in the superiority of whites over

    blacks, but Nazism was largely responsible for encouraging the

    idea th at Afrikaners were superior to any other groups of whites.15

    Afrikaners distorted their Calvinist beliefs to fur ther th isattitude of not on ly white supremacy but also of sup remacy of the

    Afrikaner volkover all other groups. Because Afrikaner culture

    derived support from the Calvinist tradition, the religious ties of

    Afrikaners were a natural place to find additional support for the

    Afrikaner volk. Accordingly, they claimed that God had estab-

    lished the volkas a tool for His purposes in South Africa. Afrikaners

    took Calvinisms doctrine of election and claimed that it sup-

    ported the spiritual, biological, and cultural superiority of theelect Afrikaner cultu re. Afrikaners further adapted Calvinism to

    include a national consciousness in th e doctrines of election and

    vocation, thus making the salvation of the Afrikaner nation from

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    81THE CONCORD REVIEW

    the evils of British domination appear comparable to the spiritual

    salvation of its inhabitants. Through this combination of deeply

    entrenched doctrines of Calvinism and the newer concept ofnationalism expressed through suppor t of the Afrikaner volk, th e

    concept of Christian-Nationalism emerged. Afrikaner journalists

    supported the concept of Christian-Nationalism by frequently

    referring to the growth of Afrikaner power in the British-con-

    trolled government as similar to the biblical story of the young

    Hebrew boy, David, defeating the Philistine giant, Goliath.16 By

    equating Calvinism to Nationalism and by seeing the struggle for

    Afrikaner political power as obedience to divine will, Christian-

    Nationalists stressed the State at the expense of more liberal ideas

    of individual freedom. This made the emerging ideas of totalitari-

    anism and fascism seem reasonable and compatible with Chris-

    tian-Nationalism.17

    The Chr istian-Nationalist movement grew in importance

    and became a central part of the campaign for Afrikaner indepen-

    den ce and for apartheid. Afrikaners, after h aving gained indepen-dence from Britain in 1961, revealed the degree to which they

    thought that independence from Britain was their divinely or-

    dained destiny when the Afrikaner newspaper, Die Transvaler,

    reported, Our republic is the inevitable fulfillment of Gods plan

    for our people...a plan formed in 1653 when [the first Dutch

    settlers] ar rived at the Cape...for which the defeat of our Republics

    in 1902 was a necessary step.18 In add ition to advocating indepen-

    dence from Britain, Afrikaners manipulated Calvins teachings to

    claim that Calvinisms clear delineation between the elect and th e

    damned supported the formation of aparth eids rigid racial and

    ethnic distinctions.19

    While Christian-Nationalism provided an ideological jus-

    tification for fascism, anti-Semitism in the 1930s further linked the

    ideologies of Chr istian-Nationalism and Nazism. Both formulated

    similar policies to control Jews within their respective countries.Interestingly, there was initially resistance to this trend from

    powerful Afrikaner leaders. In 1929, General J.B.M. Hertzog, the

    founder of the Nationalist Party, expressed decent tolerance,

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    82 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    saying that the Jews were the ethnic group whose concerns were

    most similar to those of the Afrikaner . In 1930 Dr. Daniel F. Malan,

    who later became the head of the Nationalist Party and the firstprime minister of South Africa un der the aparth eid regime, also

    outwardly supported Jewish equality; but at the same time, he

    initiated the Immigration Quota Act to allow immigration only

    from a select group of countries excluding those eastern Euro-

    pean countries from which Jews most frequently immigrated.

    Despite such voices, anti-Semitism rose at an alarming rate in both

    Germany and South Africa during the 1930s. In fact, South African

    anti-Semitism was directly related to th e an ti-Semitism an d perse-

    cution policies in Germany. Because of the persecution of Jews in

    Germany, there was a dramatic increase in the number of Jews

    immigrating to South Africa from Germany. Many Afrikaners

    noted th is increase with alarm, fearing that Jews would even tually

    overpower Afrikaners economic and political con trol. Thus, with

    the Immigration Quota Act, the govern men t seemed to legitimize

    anti-Semitism,20

    and anti-Semitism became an official policy of theAfrikaner Nation alist Par ty.

    Several militan t Nazi-sympath izing organizations protested

    the immigration of Jews into South Africa. One such gang was The

    South African Grey Shirt Party, led by L.T. Weichardt, a South

    African of German descent. The Grey Shirts became very active in

    anti-Semitic protest against th e r ising n umbers of German Jewish

    immigrants.21 These immigran ts formed 57.4% of the 6,295 Ger-

    mans immigrating to South Africa from 1933-1936. Other Nazi

    sympathizing organizations included the Boerenasie and the New

    Order; all these were anti-Semitic, but the Grey Shirts were the

    most vehemently anti-Semitic of these groups.22 Initially, the

    Afrikaner Nationalist Party attempted to oppose the Grey Shirts

    anti-Semitism, bu t the Party soon became involved in pressing for

    a new restriction on immigration of Jews that went into effect on

    November 1, 1936. Before th is new restriction went in to effect, theSS Stuttgart, a chartered ship, carr ied 600 German-Jewish refugees

    to South Africa. A protest organized by the Grey Shirts met the ship

    near the docks in Cape Town as a show of the force various militant

    groups possessed. 23 In reaction to the SS Stuttgart incident, the

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    83THE CONCORD REVIEW

    Nationalist Party met n ear Stellenbosch University, a cen ter for

    Afrikaner volkidentification. Here Dr. Hendrik Venvoerd, a Na-

    tionalist Party member, and five other Stellenbosch professorspledged th emselves to pursue an end to all Jewish immigration.24

    Verwoerd further pursued anti-Semitic policies by suggesting to

    the government that it no longer give Jews any new trading

    licenses.25 Verwoerd became even more ou tspoken on the subject

    of anti-Semitism when , in 1937, he became ed itor ofDie Transvaler,

    the newspaper published by the Nationalist Party of the Tran svaal

    region, which provided a prominent voice on Party issues for

    several decades. His first editorial was a caustic diatribe against

    Jews.26

    Afrikaners con tinued to pursue increasingly radical anti-

    Semitic legislation throughout the late 1930s, keeping pace with

    that of Nazi German y. In 1937, the Aliens Act created an Immi-

    grant Selection Board to ensure assimilability among all immi-

    grants. Although this act did not explicitly prohibit Jewish immi-

    gration, Afrikaners often considered Jews non -assimilables andprevented them from immigrating.27 The ambiguities in the Aliens

    Act caused the Nationalist Party to fight for a number of new

    deman ds to prevent all Jewish immigration and thus minimize the

    role of Jews in South Africa. These demands included the explicit

    prohibition of all future Jewish immigration, the removal of

    Yiddish as an approved European language for immigration

    purposes, and prohibition of Jews and other non-assimilable

    groups from joining certain professions.28 Following these de-

    mands of the Nation alist Party, Eric Louw, later Foreign Minister ,

    introduced another an ti-Semitic bill that strongly resembled Nazi

    legislationthe Aliens Amendment an d Immigration Bill of 1939.

    His bill was a means of suppressing all Jews. This bill suggested that

    Jews threatened to overpower Protestants in the business world

    and were innately cunning and manipulative, and th at Jews were

    a dan ger to society. To support h is claim, Louw maintained th atJews were involved in the Bolshevik Revolution and therefore

    intended to spread Communism worldwide. This bill defined Jews

    as anyone with parents who were at least par tly Jewish regardless

    of actual religious faith or practices. The majority Union Party

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    84 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    however vehemently opposed and rejected this bill. Stuttaford,

    then Minister of the Inter ior, remarked that the bill reminded h im

    of the Inquisition du ring the Middle Ages, and J. H. Hofmeyer, aUnion Party member of Parliament, considered the bill even

    worse in parts than Nazi rhetoric. Although the Aliens Amend-

    ment and Immigration Bill failed, the fact that politicians intro-

    duced such bills showed the extremes of South African anti-

    Semitism in the 1930s.29

    Many of the Jews who immigrated to South Africa adapted

    more readily to urban life than the largely agrarian Afrikaners andwere generally better educated; subsequently, most Jews seemed

    noticeably wealth ier th an Afrikaners. Afrikaners blamed th e Jews

    for their own lack of wealth by branding them enemies of society

    and of the Afrikaner in particular.30 Thus, by blaming Jews for

    Afrikaner economic hardships and by seeking to prevent Jewish

    immigration , Afrikaners found a scapegoat for their own difficulty

    in adjusting to an urban, industrial society. This anti-Semitism

    grew in its irrationality and contrad iction un til Afrikaners accusedJews of being both ruth less capitalists and subversive Commun ists.

    A 1937 poster for the South African Nationalist Peoples Move-

    ment read, We say: Down with the Jewish Communism! Down

    with the exploiters of Democracy! Down with the exploiters of the

    Trade Unions! Down with the Bolshevik agitators who want...to

    satisfy their hatred of...Christian Afrikaners...Down with Judaism,

    the enemy of the whole world!31 Dr. D.F. Malan, the incoming

    leader of the Afrikaner Nationalist Party, voiced this slander in a

    speech made on July 10, 1939: Behind the organized South

    African Jewry stands organized world Jewry...They have robbed

    the population of its heritage so that the Afrikaner lives in the land

    of his father but no longer possesses it.32 Malan also voiced his

    opinion that Jews should never comprise more than five percen t

    of the population of any region. In add ition to an ti-Semitism from

    the political arena, a committee within a synod of the DutchReformed Church concluded after much examination that the

    Jews were not Gods chosen people as described in the Old

    Testament. While the whole synod voted against accepting this

    committee declaration, the introduction of such a claim revealed

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    85THE CONCORD REVIEW

    the extent of Afrikaner anti-Semitism at this time.33 This strong

    attitude of anti-Semitism fed the ideological bond between

    Afrikaners and Nazi German y. This, along with the con cepts of theAfrikaner volkand Christian-Nationalism, provided a firm foun da-

    tion for the formation of strong, Nazi-sympathizing organizations.

    The Afrikaner Broederbond (Brotherhood) was the earli-

    est conservative Afrikaner group which closely aligned itself with

    Nazi Germany, and which was influential in the founding of

    aparth eid in 1948. The Broederbond began as a fratern ity of men

    devoted to the Afrikaner cause in 1918 and became a secretorganization in 1924. In 1918, a mob interrupted a Nationalist

    Party gathering in Johan nesburg where Dr. D.F. Malan, then the

    Party leader in Cape Town, was speaking. The mob vandalized the

    Nationalist Club building and injured some of the Party members

    attending the meeting. This disturbance left a deep impression

    especially on three Afrikaner teenagers at this meetingH.J.

    Klopper, H.W. van der Merwe, and Daniel H.C. du Plessiswho

    met the following day to p ledge themselves to restore th e Afrikanerto h is rightful place in South Africa. On Jun e 5, 1918, these three

    under the guidance of Rev. J.F. Naude of the Dutch Reformed

    Church, held a meeting in du Plessis home. This meeting marked

    the beginn ing of the Broederbond . The n ame of the organization

    that th ey began with on ly eighteen members was Jong Suid-Afrika

    (Young South Africa), bu t by 1920, the organ ization took the

    name Afrikaner Broederbond, and considered itself a quasi-

    religious organization for the purpose of promoting Afrikaner

    unity and of allowing young nationalist-minded Afrikaners to

    meet on e anoth er. Membership was open , and the Broederbond

    strongly encouraged its 37 members to wear Broederbon d buttons

    to distinguish themselves.34 However, the Broederbond did not

    remain as open and harmless an organization as it began.

    As the Broederbond grew, its nature changed and it

    became increasingly exclusive by the late 1930s. Membership wasvery limited. In 1944, membership was about 2,674 with 8.6% of

    these being public servants and 33.3% educators.35 The mission of

    the Broederbond was to promote Afrikaner interests in every area.

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    86 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    Its secretive, cult-like nature prevented the South African people

    from realizing the full extent of the power of the Broederbond

    until it had gained a firm grip on South African politics. TheBroederbond was the means by which the ideological ideas of

    Afrikaner volkand Christian-Nationalism attempted to unify all

    Afrikaners into a single force.36 In 1946, Senator Andrew Conroy,

    the Minister of Lands and an ou tspoken anti-Broederbond mem-

    ber of the United Party, estimated that the Broederbond had

    strong influence over nine out of ten Dutch Reformed Church

    congregations. Because of this and other allegations of

    Broederbond involvement in the Dutch Reformed Church, the

    Church launched an investigation of the Broederbond in 1949.

    They reported that the Broederbond was a ben ign social organi-

    zation open to all Afrikaans-speaking Protestan ts who were loyal to

    South Africa. Many of the Broederbonds critics argued that

    precisely the Broederbonds influence within the church had

    secured a favorable, though fraudu lent, report.37

    Just as its critics feared, the Broederbonds membershipwas not as open as the Dutch Reformed Churchs report alleged.

    The Broederbond denied membership to J.B.M. Hertzog and J.C.

    Smuts, both Afrikaans-speaking Protestants, for their willingness

    to negotiate with Britain and for their refusal to den y the r ight of

    English-speaking South Africans to participate in govern ment.38

    Hertzog also denounced the Broederbond for their refusal to

    negotiate with English-speaking South Africans and for hindering

    his diplomatic efforts. The Broederbond countered by accusing

    Hertzog of trying to increase his own political power by provoking

    English-speaking South Africans to fear Afrikaners.39 Smuts con-

    sidered the Broederbond a dan gerous organization but failed to

    oppose it publicly for some time despite h aving the power granted

    by the special War Measures Act of 1941 to do so. Accord ing to h is

    Director of Military Intelligence, E. G. Malherbe, Smuts chose not

    to expose the Broederbond because so many Broederbond mem-bers were Dutch Reformed Church ministers and teachers, profes-

    sions for which Smuts had great respect. Smuts refused to oppose

    the p ro-Nazi attitudes of un iversity students and professors except

    in the case of those who committed civil crimes.40 Even tually Smuts

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    87THE CONCORD REVIEW

    yielded to the repeated counsel of his military intelligence who

    believed that the th reat posed by the Broederbond was great. The

    Broederbond became aware of Smuts plans for action in 1943 butallowed members to deal with Smuts coming ultimatum as each

    saw fit. In 1944, Smuts demanded that all Broederbond members

    who were public servants ( including teachers) resign either from

    the Broederbond or from their public service positions. After th is

    order, 1,094 Broederbond members resigned from th e organiza-

    tion, but man y more resigned from their civil service position . Of

    those who resigned from the Broederbond, 807 rejoined after

    Smuts administration lost power to the Nationalist Party in the

    1948 elections. Broederbond members gained much public sym-

    pathy du ring this period for their loyalty to th e Afrikaner cause,41

    while Smuts publicly denounced th e Broederbond as A dan ger-

    ous, cunning, political Fascist organ isation .42 Broederbond mem-

    bers responded by repeatedly denying Smuts allegations, and

    claiming that the Broederbond was a benign cultural organiza-

    tion.When the Broederbond began in 1918, it was not the

    fascist organ ization that Smuts denounced in 1944, but with th e

    rise of Nazi Germany, the link between the ideology of the

    Broederbond and that of Nazi Germany grew. This link became

    critical to the Broederbond with the 1934 visit of Graf von

    Durckheim Montmartin, a representative of Nazi Germany.

    Montmartin came to South Africa with the official intention of

    attending a conference on education, but according to docu-

    men ts confiscated during World War II at the German diplomacy

    headquarters for the Union of South Africa, Hitler sent Montmartin

    with the purpose of determining what support South Africa might

    provide to Germany in th e n ew world order that Hitler en visioned .

    Montmartin met secretly with top Broederbond leaders to discuss

    how the Broederbond might be of service to this end. After this

    meeting with Montmartin, the Broederbond reorganized itself toresemble the Nazi Party. One exception in th is new organ ization

    was the Broederbonds use of the Dutch Reformed Church to

    inspire nationalism and support of all Afrikaners, whereas Hitler

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    88 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    had reverted to the symbols of Nordic mythology to provide a

    competitive religious awe for the Nazi Party.43

    Montmartins appeal emph asized the value of anti-British

    propaganda as a means of secur ing South African support for Nazi

    Germany and included another sphere of possible influence,

    young South African scholars whom the Broederbond encour-

    aged to study at German universities. One implementation of

    Montmartin an d the Broederbonds strategy of anti-British p ropa-

    ganda during World War II involved a radio station in Zeesen,

    Germany that broadcast very clearly to South Africa, more clearlythan the British Broadcasting Company or any South African

    radio stations. This radio station was very popular for its music

    programs. After the popular music programs, a South African

    teacher studying in Germany, Dr. Erik Holm, broadcast vehemen t

    anti-British and anti-Semitic messages in Afrikaans to the listen ers

    in South Africa. After the war, a South African cou rt found Holm

    guilty of treason and imprisoned him, but when the Nationalist

    Party came into power after the elections of 1948, the n ew govern -ment released Holm from prison after on ly serving one year of his

    10-year sentence. Ironically, Holm later received an appointment

    to the Department of Education.44 Influenced by Holms pro-

    Nazism, newspapers open ly began to reflect Nazi sympathy before

    and during the war. One example wasDie Transvaler, published by

    Dr. Verwoerd, a Broederbond member. In addition to his anti-

    Semitic editorials, Verwoerd expressed delight at Allied defeats

    and much dismay in h is reports on Nazi losses. Such Broederbond

    propaganda prompted much concern among government offi-

    cials about the growing power of the organization as the tie

    between the Broederbond and th e Nazi Party became evident to

    those outside of the organization.45

    Janie Malherbe, a South African captain of Military Intel-

    ligence, realized the danger of Broederbonds close alliance with

    the Nazi Party after Montmartins visit. She reported : This ter ri-fying octopus-like grip on the South African way of life was made

    possible by reorganising the Broederbond on the pattern of

    Hitlers highly successful Nazi state, complete with fuehrer,

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    89THE CONCORD REVIEW

    gauleiters, group an d cell leaders, spread in a sinister network over

    the whole of South Africa.46 The Afrikaner Broederbond fol-

    lowed the ideological and organizational patterns of the NaziParty and advocated support of the Nazi Germany under the

    assumption that in Hitlers new world order, Hitler would give

    Afrikaners independent ru le of South Africa as a reward for their

    loyalty to and support of Nazism.

    In 1939, while th e Broederbond was growing in strength

    and World War II was underway, Afrikaner conservatives who

    wanted violently to pursue Afrikaner con trol of South Africa led anew military-minded organization, the Ossewa Brandwag (liter-

    ally Brigade of Ox-wagon Sentinels, referring to the p ioneering

    Voortrekkers). Colonel J.C.C. Laas, a former military officer

    inten sely loyal to the Afrikaner volkand the Voortrekker heritage,

    founded the Ossewa Brandwag to promote Afrikaner heritage, but

    the organization quickly grew into a popular military movemen t.

    Laas led the O ssewa Brandwag from February 1939 un til the rapid

    growth of the organization expanded beyond h is managing capa-bilities, prompting his resignation in October 1940.47 After Laas

    stepped down from the leadership, the Ossewa Brandwag became

    more militant in nature under the leadership of Dr. Hans van

    Rensburg. As the national leader, he h ad the title Comman dan t-

    General, and local leaders became generals.

    The Ossewa Brandwag, like the Broederbond, supported

    Nazi Germany.48

    The group strongly opposed the efforts of Smutsand his army to support the British; its opposition posed a signifi-

    cant threat because the Ossewa Brandwag had more members

    than Smuts army.49 The groups Nazi sympathy became clear

    when it printed its constitution in German Gothic type and when

    it chose an eagle, the emblem of the Nazi Reichstag, as its

    emblem.50 The Ossewa Brandwag opposed the growth of urban

    areas using the Dutch Reformed Churchs doctrine of British-

    Jewish capitalism.51 A cartoon from the Afrikaner nationalistnewspaper,Die Burger, opposed the alleged control of the British

    market system by Jewish professionals. The cartoon pictured an

    exaggeratedly rotund, greedy Jew riding on the shoulders of a

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    90 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    gaunt Smuts and Hertzog, and it suggested that wealthy Jews

    controlled the pro-British government.52 Some Afrikaners ex-

    pressed the opinion that Jews, in league with the British, deviouslyworked to increase their wealth and power at the expense of

    hardworking Afrikaners who steadfastly did th eir best to survive in

    a harsh world. To many, it appeared that the British and th e Jews

    oppressed the Afrikaners; Afrikaners could free themselves by

    supporting Nazi Germany, which promised to destroy both groups.

    The Ossewa Bran dwag became increasingly Nazi-oriented .

    They formed the Stormjaers (stormtroopers), who were a secre-tive part of the Ossewa Brandwag composed mostly of police

    officers. The Stormjaers threatened and attacked anyone who was

    not as conservative as they, including Nationalist Party leaders

    such as Dr. Hen drik Verwoerd . The Stormjaers considered them-

    selves to be acting for the best interests of the Ossewa Bran dwag

    but may not have always acted under the direct orders of the

    group.53 The violence of the Stormjaers demonstrated the grave

    dan ger the O ssewa Brandwag posed as it sought to create a fasciststate.

    J.C. Smuts, while hesitant to confront the Broederbond,

    nonetheless opposed the Ossewa Brandwag with much fervor as

    the type of organization that brought Hitler to power in Germany

    and that might have the capability to bring a similar leader to

    power in South Africa.54 His criticism was not without justification;

    the Ossewa Brandwag was evidence of the growth of Nazi sympathyand dedication to Afrikaner supremacy in South Africa. Rev. J. D.

    Vorster , one general in th e Ossewa Bran dwag, a Nationalist Party

    leader, and a future Nationalist prime minister, expressed the

    rapidly changing opinions of many who became increasingly

    right-wing. In 1934, Vorster denounced Fascism and Nazism in

    par ticular bu t after h e became an Assistant-hoof Komman dan t in

    the Ossewa Brandwag, he expressed his admiration of Hitler and

    his desire for a South Africa in which only Afrikaners had wealthand political powerall Jews expelled from the country, and

    democratic elections terminated.55 Vorster h oped for a n ew South

    African govern ment where, the Afrikaner will no longer cooper-

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    91THE CONCORD REVIEW

    ate with the Englishman. He will make the conditions and the

    Englishman will be compelled to submit.56 Vorster spoke to the

    Afrikaner Nationalist Studentebond, th e youth wing of the OssewaBrandwag, saying, Hitlers Mein Kampfshows the way to great-

    nessthe path of South Africa. Hitler gave the Germans

    a...fanaticism which causes them to stand back for no one. We

    must follow his example because only by such holy fanaticism can

    the Afrikaner nation achieve its calling.57 Because the violent

    nature of Vorsters opinions threatened th e govern ments stabil-

    ity, Smuts jailed Vorster along with some other Ossewa Brandwag

    members dur ing much of World War II.58

    Vorsters desire for a new South African govern ment an d

    for the expulsion of Jews from South Africa was a common desire

    throughout the O ssewa Brandwag. The group assured its mem-

    bers that, the man with a crooked nose [is] the danger to the

    country.59 In 1940, the Afrikaner Nationalist Studentebond, the

    youth wing of the Ossewa Brandwag, acted upon the groups

    desire for a n ew government and issued a Freedom Manifesto asa promise on the part of the youth to fight to overthrow the

    parliamentary government and establish a Christian-Nationalist

    govern men t under an elected d ictator. This plan included a state-

    controlled press, a state education system with Christian-Nation al-

    ist principles, and Afrikaans as the official language of South

    Africa. While th is document n ever explicitly mentioned Nazism,

    the government described was very similar to th e d ictatorship in

    Nazi Germany.60

    In September 1940, the newspaper, Die Suiderstem, pub-

    lished Constitution from the Christian-Nationalist Republic as

    the Ossewa Bran dwags plan for a new governmen t. This govern-

    ment was viewed byDie Suiderstem as a Nazi state with only a few

    changes such as the title of the dictator being president instead of

    fueh rer, and the basis of the govern men t being Christian-Nation-

    alist rather than Nation al-Socialist.61 During the same mon th, theCape Timespublished an article asserting that the Ossewa Brandwag

    was in the process of arranging a coup to establish a Christian-

    Nationalist dictatorship. This report claimed that there were

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    92 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    Ossewa Brandwag members in important positions in public

    service, the police force, and virtually every major private industry

    such as mining and railroads who were ready to act upon thecommand of the group to assist in a coup designed to exile all Jews

    and subject all British South Africans to Afrikaner control.62 In the

    same year, the Ossewa Brandwag issued a similar plan for a new

    South Africa with its Declaration on the Boer Republic. This new

    government was to be a compilation of the governments of the

    initial Boer Republics with many elements of Nazi government

    and some aspects of other govern ments including that of Mussolini

    in Italy. This govern ment called for a head of state with unlimited

    power who would support the concentration of power and wealth

    in th e hands of Afrikaners and discrimination against all English-

    speakers.63

    However, this republic never had a chance to become

    more than an idea because with the Allies complete victory over

    the Nazis in 1945, the Ossewa Bran dwag lost much of its support

    and its members dispersed. Many joined the Nationalist Party,which grew in power during th is transition . Some Ossewa Brandwag

    members formed another minor Fascist organization, but its

    membership and influence were very small.64 The postwar era saw

    the rapid growth of the Nationalist Party un til it won a majority in

    1948 and began the system of apartheid.

    The Nationalist Party that began in 1914 un der the leader-

    ship of J.B.M. Hertzog grew steadily from its foun ding to WorldWar II, but it experienced its greatest growth un der Dr. D. F. Malan

    dur ing World War II and immediately after the war, especially with

    the collapse of the Ossewa Brandwag and other fascist groups.

    During the growth of Afrikaner n ationalism in th e early 1930s, the

    Nationalist Party un der Hertzog did not actively pu rsue indepen-

    dence from Britain. The Nationalist Party thereby gave up the

    relative freedom and autonomy of South Africa within the British

    Empire for th is radical step for complete independen ce.65 WhenHertzog united with Smuts to form the United Party in 1933,

    Malan assumed leadership of the Nationalist Party which began to

    pursue a more radical path. At the apogee of Nazi Germanys

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    93THE CONCORD REVIEW

    power, the Nationalist Party attempted to maintain an official

    position of neutrality between Britain an d Nazi German y because

    it was an official political party in th e South Africa parliament andtherefore did not want to allow the pro-Nazi, radical Afrikaners to

    sway its policy or to p reven t it from being able to work with the pro-

    British government under Smuts. Although it did not go so far as

    to declare open support of Nazi Germany, the Nationalist Party

    did change its primary objective. No longer did it promote equal

    political participation between Afrikaans-speaking and English-

    speaking South Africans. Rather, its new priority was that of

    establishing an indepen den t Afrikaner republic. The Nationalist

    Party attempted to distinguish between its support of the Afrikaner

    republic based on the doctrine of Christian-Nationalism, as the

    will of God, and its opposition to Nazism. Dr. Hendrik Verwoerd

    vowed, The Afrikaner will have as little to do with German

    National Socialism as with British imperialism...he will be as little

    a tool of Hitler as of Chamberlain.66

    Despite the official position of supporting the Afrikanerand not the Nazi, man y members of the Nationalist Party openly

    supported Nazi Germany. Even Hertzog expressed his distrust of

    a majority-ruled, democratic, free-market society with a free press

    in favor of a new world order of Christian-Nationalism and

    National Socialism.67 During the course of World War II, the

    Nationalist Party published four documents that demonstrated

    the extent of the Nationalist Partys Nazi support and the influ-

    ence of the Ossewa Brandwag and other militant groups.68 Otto du

    Plessis, the Nationalist Partys Secretary of Information , wrote the

    first of these documents in 1940. In a pamph let entitled The New

    South AfricaThe Revolution of the Twentieth Centuryhe heralded the

    new place South Africa would have in the Nazis new world order.69

    This document supported an Afrikaner state affirming, The

    philosophy at the basis of the new order...is undiluted and un-

    equivocal nationalism.70

    Du Plessis fur ther argued,Afrikanerdom...has, under th e imported British system, not known

    full political, economic, and social freedom. It consequently pines

    for the new system of a new order, which would br ing with it true

    national freedom in all spheres of life.71 In his plan, Du Plessis

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    94 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    cited Germany as a model for this new order an d wanted Afrikaner

    nationalism to imitate that of Germany, where Every German

    must be small so that Germany can be great.72 The Nationalist

    Party supported this extreme nationalism believing that it would

    elevate the country at the expense of the ruth less foreign capital-

    ist. The Ossewa Brandwag supported the Nationalist Partys

    position in th is document by pattern ing several of its own docu-

    ments after The New South AfricaThe Revolution of the Twentieth

    Century.73 In 1941 Dr. Malan, the Nationalist Party leader, further

    revealed the pro-Nazi stance of the Nationalist Party when he

    wrote The Republican Order: Future Policy as Set Out by Dr. Malan.74

    This document showed fewer parallels to the govern ment of Nazi

    Germany than Du Plessis The New South Africa. Rather, The Repub-

    lican Orderdescribed the political structure of the Boer republics

    as a un iquely Afrikaner model of govern ment. This documen t did

    link itself to Nazi Germany by its mentioning the expectation that

    through its victory in World War II, Germany would drive the

    British out of South Africa.75

    Malan formed a strategic rather th anideological tie with Germany in his The Republican Order, but he

    strengthened this tie in 1942 with his ideological Draft for a

    Republic. The Christian-Nationalist republic that Malan described

    in th is documen t had a presiden t with unlimited powers, directly

    and only responsible to God.76 The p residen t had the power to

    control and dismiss Parliament and his Cabinet, to declare war

    and control the military, to control the economy, to prevent

    competition, and to censor the press. Critics accused Malan ofsupporting Hitlers pure race concepts because he specified,

    Each coloured group...will be segregated , not only as regards to

    place of dwelling...but also with regard to sph eres of work.77 Th e

    Eastern Province Herald, a pro-British newspaper, claimed in an

    editorial published on January 24, 1942, that Malans document

    Borrowed from Mussolini for his group system, Goebbles on the

    matter of press and radio control and propaganda generally, Hitler

    in respect of the arbitrary, all-embracing, over-riding powers of the

    Fuehrer-President, ...[and] Mr. Pirows new order study group for

    various odds and ends dictated by an earnest desire to steal their

    synth etic thunder.78

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    A fourth important publication by the Nationalist Party

    during World War II was its 1944The Social and Economic Policy of the

    Nationalist Party. This documen t maintained that all major aspects

    of South African economics should be controlled by the state

    through a Central Economics Coun cil to ensure the stability of the

    economy and limit competition in all sectors. This plan con cluded

    with the proud assertion, Our whole econ omic life will be con -

    trolled by the Cen tral Economics Council. All key industries will be

    controlled by the State...[This is] the sensible way of a con trolled

    economic system within the framework of a national govern ment.

    This is the way to th e New Order in th e Free Republic of South

    Africa.79 This publication was the last of the documents of the

    Nationalist Party that borrowed heavily from Nazi Germany. After

    this point in th e war, German ys imminen t defeat weakened an y

    bon d that Afrikaners wanted to claim with her. In 1945, the Ossewa

    Brandwag and other militant pro-Nazi groups disbanded when

    the Allies had completely defeated Nazi Germany.

    The fascist documents that the Nationalist Party and oth erorganizations such as the Ossewa Brandwag published during

    World War II represented th e more conservative en d of Afrikaner

    political opinion. Other more moderate groups supported South

    African neutrality in the war, aiding neither Britain nor German y,

    while the most conservative Afrikaners supported Britain with

    only minimal reservations. Because Afrikaner sentiment covered

    this wide spectrum, World War II caused great division and

    fragmentation of the Afrikaners. After the war, many of these

    splintered groups joined the Nationalist Party, which became less

    militant in its quest for fascism and refocused on its original

    purpose, the elevation of the Afrikaner.80 In general, this postwar

    period was a time of un ification of the many Afrikaner factions that

    were splintered by World War II. The influence of the members of

    the Ossewa Brandwag, who joined the Nationalist Party after their

    organization collapsed in 1945, prevented the Nationalist Partyfrom becoming overly passive or conciliatory. Nonetheless, the

    Party knew that it no longer had support for the totalitarian

    governmen t described in its The New South AfricaThe Revolution

    of the Twentieth Century and MalansDraft for a Republic. Still the

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    96 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    influence of Nazism remained as it had provided a foundation

    upon which many of the Nationalist Party leaders built their

    political beliefs and policies. Even when Nazism collapsed, the

    seed of its ideology remained buried in the ideology of the

    Nationalist Party. All of the new leaders had been members of the

    Broederbond, and some had been members of the Ossewa

    Brandwag. The men who would become the leaders of the apart-

    heid regime d id not repudiate the ideology of Nazism; rather, they

    adap ted their political positions on ly enough to win power in the

    post-World War II South Africa.

    With the adven t of the post-World War II world, Afrikaners

    felt threatened by the new spirit of liberalism introduced by the

    Allies in the Atlantic declaration an d the U.N. Charter of Human

    Rights. The increasing numbers of black laborers who were mov-

    ing into the cities to find work also seemed to th reaten conserva-

    tive Afrikaners when man y of these laborers embraced the grow-

    ing Communist Party as a way to oppose their harsh working

    conditions. The Communist influen ce on black laborers culmi-nated in a widespread strike among mine workers in 1946 that

    further frightened Afrikaners who recognized Communism as a

    threat to their livelihood. The African Mine Workers Union

    organized th is strike of between 75,000 and 100,000 black mine

    workers who worked in extremely dan gerous conditions for less

    than a ten th of the pay of white workers. The strike on ly lasted a

    week before the government violently forced workers back to th e

    mines, yet it affected more th an 30 mines.81 The liberal post-war

    doctrines and th e mineworkers strike encouraged Afrikaners to

    retreat to a position of isolation from the new intellectual curren ts

    abroad.82 Opposition to Smuts as pr ime minister grew during this

    period. Smuts was reviled for leading South African troops to the

    aid of the Allies and for intern ing some of the most conservative

    Afrikaner nationalists ( such as Rev. J.D. Vorster ) , which reminded

    Afrikaners of the British concentration camps in which manyBoers died during the Second Boer War.83

    After 1945, the concepts of the Afrikaner volkand Chris-

    tian-Nationalism became increasingly central to the Afrikaner

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    97THE CONCORD REVIEW

    cause as Afrikaners became more un ified in their work toward pro-

    Afrikaner ru le. The concepts of the volkand of Christian-Nation-

    alism directly aided Afrikaner unity and effor ts towards auton omy,whereas concepts of Nazism or totalitarian governments, while

    embraced by many Afrikaners, also divided the Afrikaners. The

    concepts ofvolkand Christian-Nationalism had origins in Hegels

    and Fichtes German nationalism and in the Dutch Reformed

    Churchs bran d of Calvinism, both of which preceded the rise of

    Nazi Germany. They did not lose validity by the end of World War

    II. Increasing numbers of Afrikaners believed like Dr. D.F. Malan

    that the purity of the Afrikaner volkdepended on the prevention

    of intermarrying with other races and that without a rigid system

    of separation of the races intermarrying would occur and the

    Afrikaner race would lose some of its poten cy in its unique work of

    fulfilling the will of God.84 Accordingly, the Nationalist Party

    founded the South African Bureau for Racial Affairs in 1947 to

    oppose th e South Africa Institute of Race Relations which man y

    Nationalists considered too liberal and pro-British. Some Afrikanersderogatively referred to it as the English Institute. This organ iza-

    tion was responsible for the development of the theory of apart-

    heid and for the implementation of it after the Nationalist victory

    in 1948.85 On e Broederbond member and former Ossewa Brandwag

    general, Stellenbosch Professor G. Cronje, wrote in hisVoogdyskap

    en Apartheid, The Christian standpoint boils down to the belief

    that it is Gods will that there should be a variety of races, volks, and

    cultures, and...the glorification an d maintenance of such variety,regarded from a Christian viewpoint, is justified an d moreover can

    be taken as obedience to the will of God.86 Thus, the official

    standpoint of the Dutch Reformed Church, the largest religious

    denomination among Afrikaners, seemed to support a national

    plan of segregation . Malan, who h ad been a minister p rior to h is

    en try into the political realm, remarked that while establishing a

    system of segregation is not under the jurisdiction of the church,

    the govern men t should pay close atten tion to th e Churchs guide-

    lines in the establishment of such a system. He meant that govern -

    mental policies regarding race must stress separation .87

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    98 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    Aware of the growing desire among Afrikaners for an

    institutionalized system of segregation , Malan led the Nationalist

    Party on a platform of apartheid in the elections of 1948.88 Th e

    Broederbond was active in the elections of 1948 with at least 60

    Nationalist Party candidates known to be members, including

    Malan who became prime minister. One of the candidates was

    W.C. du Plessis who had served as a South African diplomat but

    resigned when Smuts ordered in 1944 that no public servants

    could be Broederbond members. The fact that du Plessis reen-

    tered the political sph ere in the same election in which Smuts lost

    power demonstrated the change of the political climate in South

    Africa.89 In the final count, the Nationalist Party, with its political

    ally, the much smaller Havengas Afrikaner Party, won 79 of the

    150 seats in parliament. The two parties had each received a

    plurality, not a majority, of all the votes cast.90 The alliance of these

    two Afrikaner parties revealed the unification of all Afrikaners

    after World War II to fight for political power, but their victory did

    not represent the true will of the electorate that had cast 140,000more votes for the parties in opposition to the allied Nationalist

    Party and Havengas Afrikaner Party than for this apartheid

    platform.91 This election marked the beginning of apartheid in

    South Africa. Under Malans leadership, the Nationalist Party

    legislated th e complete separation of whites from non-whites ( that

    had already been in practice) but also introduced th e separation

    of one non-white group from another.

    The Broederbond was influential in these first years of

    apar theid by establishing the Institute for Christian-National Edu-

    cation and th e Federation of Afrikaans Cultural Organizations as

    well as by obtaining from th e Dutch Reformed Church a doctrinal

    justification of apar theid.92 In 1948, the Federation of Afrikaans

    Cultural Organizations published Christian-National Education Poli-

    cies that outlined the principles the new government should

    maintain to ensure that schools were, places where our childrenare soaked and nourished in the Christian-National spiritual

    cultural stuff of our nation.93 The document included instruc-

    tion on proposed teaching methods intended to provide an

    education steeped in Christian-Nationalism, and it concluded

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    99THE CONCORD REVIEW

    with the Afrikaner position on education of non-whites that

    represented the emph asis on white supremacy in the new Nation-

    alist government. Article 14Instruction and Education ofColoureds affirmed, We believe th at the instruction of Coloured

    people should be regarded as a subdivision of the vocation and

    task of the Afrikaner to Christianize the non-European by the

    European, and par ticularly by the Afrikaner.94 The final section

    of this document, Article 15The Teaching and Education of

    Natives, professed white supremacy even more emphatically: We

    believe that the education and task of white South Africa with

    respect to th e n ative is to Christianize h im...and this vocation and

    task has foun d its immediate application and task in the principles

    of trusteeship, no[ t] placing of the native on the level of the white,

    and in segregation.95 Thus, the new South African government

    implemen ting aparth eid relied heavily on the p rinciples of Chris-

    tian-Nationalism.

    Despite the reliance of the Nationalist governmen t on the

    concepts of Christian-Nationalism and the Afrikaner volk, th einfluence of Nazism remained within the Nationalist Party pr ima-

    rily through the continued control of the governmen t by members

    of the Broederbond. All pr ime ministers and most major political

    leaders during the apartheid era were members of the

    Broederbond. Through its secret nature, the Broederbond re-

    tained much of its right-wing ideology during the period between

    the defeat of Nazi Germany and the Nationalist Party victory in

    1948. The leaders of South Africa after 1948 no longer espoused

    Nazism as they had during World War II, but they had come to

    their political and intellectual maturity un der the shadow of Nazi

    Germany and had devoted years of their lives to the fur theran ce of

    its ideology. Thus, a strain of the infamous regime that terrorized

    Europe in the first half of the twentieth century persisted to

    control South Africa for th e second h alf of the cen tury.

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    100 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    Endnotes

    1

    Charles Bloomberg, Christian-Nationalism and the Riseof the Afrikaner Broederbu nd in South Africa, 1918-1948

    (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989) pp. xix-xx; see

    also William Henry Vatcher, Jr., White Laager: The Rise of

    Afrikaner Nationalism (New York: Frederick A. Praeger,

    Publishers, 1965) pp. 3-42 David Nash, The Boer War and its Humanitarian

    Critics, History Tod ay 49 (June 1999) p. 42, found using

    InfoTrac Web: Stud ent Edition .3

    Ibid., p. 34 Ivor Wilkins and H ans Strydom, The Broederbond ( New

    York: Paddington Press, 1979)5 Ibid., pp . 37-386 Ibid., p. 367 Bloomberg, p. 1838 Kenneth Ingh am, Jan Christian Smuts: the Conscience of

    a South African (New York: St. Martins Press, 1986) p. 1189 Bloomberg, p. 183

    10

    Vatcher, p. 6311 Bloomberg, p. 13712 Ibid., p. 13613 Bloomberg, p. 16214 Vatcher, p. 6015 Brian Bun ting, The Rise of the South African Reich

    (Penguin Africa Library, 1969, Available as ebook at http:/ /

    www.anc.org.za/ books/ reich.html) ch. 4. p. 2 of 1216 Ibid., p. xx17

    Bloomberg, pp. 100-10118 Ibid., p. xxi19 Ibid., p. 10020 Bun ting, ch. 4, p. 2 of 1221 Vatcher, p. 6422 Bunting, ch. 4, pp. 3-4 of 1223 Ibid., ch. 4, p. 3 of 1224 Ibid., ch. 4, pp. 3-4 of 1225 Ibid., ch. 4, p. 3 of 1226

    Vatcher, p. 6127 Bun ting, ch. 4, p. 4 of 1228 Ibid., ch. 4, p. 5 of 1229 Ibid., ch. 4, pp. 4-5 of 1230 Vatcher, p. 61

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    101THE CONCORD REVIEW

    31 Ibid., p. 6232 Ibid., p. 6133

    Ibid., pp . 61, 6334 Wilkins, pp. 44-4635 Bun ting, ch. 3 p. 3 of 836 Bloomberg, p . xxii37 Bun ting, ch. 3, p. 3 of 838 Ibid., ch. 3, p. 2 of 839 Ibid., ch. 3, p. 2 of 840 Wilkins, pp. 78-7941 Ibid., pp . 82-8442

    Bunting, ch. 3, pp. 2-3 of 8; see also Wilkins, p. 8343 Bunting, ch. 3, pp. 1-2; see also Wilkins, pp. 76-7744 Wilkins, pp. 77-7845 Ibid., p. 7746 Bunting, ch. 3 pp. 1-2 of 847 Bloomberg, p. 16348 Ibid., pp . 161-16249 Wilkins, p. 7750 There is also some evidence that th e organization used a

    swastika as a symbol of its power and prestige, bu t th at is notcertain. Vatcher , p. 66

    51 Bloomberg, p. 16252 Vatcher, p. 6153 There are no clear records of any orders the Ossewa

    Brandwag issued to th e Stormjaers probably because the grou p

    did n ot wish any record of its respon sibility for acts of violence.

    Bloomberg, p. 16654 Ibid., p. 16855

    Ibid ., p. 167; see also Wilkins, pp . 77-7856 Vatcher, p. 6357 Ibid., p. 6358 Wilkins, pp. 77-7859 Vatcher, p. 6560 Bloomberg, pp. 165-166; see also Wilkins, pp. 256-25761 Vatcher, p. 6662 Ibid., p. 6663 Bloomberg, p. 16764

    Ibid., pp . 201-20265 Ingham, p. 18266 Bloomberg, p. 16567 Bunting, ch. 4, pp . 1-2 of 8

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    102 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

    My sources differed on the exten t to which they considered

    the Nationalist Party to be sympathetic to the Nazis perhaps as

    the result of the desire of the auth ors to present the NationalistParty in e ither a positive or negative light. Whatever the official

    platform of the Party, most members were pro-Nazi as

    dem onstrated by Nationalist Party publications during the war.68 This evidence of a radical faction within the Nationalist

    Party causes a minority of scholars to con sider the Ossewa

    Brand wag as no thing more than a radical branch of the

    Nationalist Party. Kenneth Ingham suggested th is in h is

    favorable biography on Smuts perhaps to min imize the degree

    of opposition that Smuts faced. Ingham, p. 213; see alsoVatcher, p. 68

    69 Bloomberg, p. 16570 Vatcher, p. 6971 Ibid., p. 6972 Ibid., p. 6973 Ibid., pp. 68-6974 Most branches of the Nationalist Party published this

    document without its subtitle. The Transvaal bran ch of the

    Party added the subtitle when it published th e documen t.75 Vatcher, p. 7076 Ibid., pp. 70-7277 Ibid., p. 7378 Ibid., p. 7379 Ibid., p. 7380 Bloomberg, pp. 202-20381 M.P. Naicker, The African Miners Strike of 1945, from

    Notes and Documents, No. 21/ 76. Sept. 1976 http :/ /

    www.anc.org.za/ ancdocs/ history/ misc/ miners.html ( 1 July2003)

    82 Ibid., pp. 202, 20483 Wilkins, p. 8084 D.F. Malan, person al letter, 12 February 195485 Vatcher, p. 15186 Bloomberg, pp. 203, 20587 Malan, letter88 Bloomberg, pp. 203-20489

    Bun ting, ch. 3, p. 390 Bloomberg, p. 20591 Ibid., p. 20592 Ibid., p. 20893 Vatcher, p. 289

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    103THE CONCORD REVIEW

    94 Ibid., p. 30095 Ibid., p. 300

    Bibliography

    Bloomberg, Char les, Christian Nationalism and the Rise of

    the Afrikaner Broederbund in South Africa, 1918-1948

    Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1989

    Bunting, Brian, The Rise of the South African Reich

    Penguin Africa Library, 1969, available as an ebook at http:/ /www.anc.org.za/ books/ reich.html

    Ingh am, Kenneth , Jan Chr istian Smuts: the Conscience of a

    Sou th African New York: St. Martins Press, 1986

    Malan, Daniel F., Personal letter, 12 February 1954 (no

    source given)

    Naicker, M.P., The African Miners Strike of 1945, fromNotes and Documents, No. 21/ 76, Sept. 1976 http :/ /

    www.anc.org.za/ ancdocs/ history/ misc/ miners.html ( 1 July

    2003)

    Nash, David, The Boer War and its Humanitarian Critics,

    History Today 49 (June 1999): 42, found using InfoTrac Web:

    Student Edition

    Vatcher, William Henry, Jr., White Laager: The Rise ofAfrikaner Nationalism New York: Frederick A. Praeger ,

    Publishers, 1965

    Wilkins, Ivor, and H ans Strydom, The Broederbond New

    York: Paddington Press, 1979

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    104 Elizabeth Lee Jemison

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