alexander the great, and hellenism
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DESCRIPTIONAlexander the Great, and Hellenism. Macedonia. Macedonians were culturally and ethnically related to the Greeks Actually looked upon as sort of “barbarian cousins” by the Greeks of Athens, Sparta, etc. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Alexander the Great, and Hellenism
MacedoniaMacedonians were culturally and ethnically related to the GreeksActually looked upon as sort of barbarian cousins by the Greeks of Athens, Sparta, etc. Demosthenes: not only no Greek, nor related to the Greeks, but not even a barbarian from any place that can be named with honors, but a pestilent knave from Macedonia, whence it was never yet possible to buy a decent slave" (Third Philippic, 31)
King Philip II of MacedoniaReigned 359 336 BC
Expanded his territory north to the Danube River and south into the Greek peninsula
Conquered all city-states except Sparta by 338 B.C.E.
King Phillip IIThe Macedonian PhalanxSarissas in rear row hid manoeuvres going on behindSarissas 6 metre long spears that really hurt if you found yourself on the wrong end of themProfessional soldiers (who could therefore afford to fight all year round)
King Philip II of Macedonia
Assassinated in 336 B.C.E. shortly before a planned invasion of Persia.Killed by a man named Pausanius. Motivation not known with any certainty.Alexander had had a falling out with Phillip when the latter had remarried.
Alexander the Great (356 323 BC)Born to Olympias and Phillip in 356 BCE Olympias was the 4th of Phillips 7 wives She was from Epirus (making Alexander half Macedonian),
Alexander the GreatTutored by Aristotle
Lived 384 322 BCStudent of PlatoPolymath: Physics; Biology; Ethics; Politics; Metaphysics; Poetry; TheatreA lot of his works destroyed we rely on lecture notes.
Alexander the GreatTutored by Aristotle
Tutored Alexander from the age of 13 (as well as other children of Macedonian nobles)
Instilled in Alexander a love of Homer, particularly, the Iliad
Alexander the GreatAlexander came to the throne at age 20 (336 B.C.E.
Succession rivals murderedRestless tribes in Illyria and ThraceThebans murdered Macedonian garrison Thebes sacked and razedAthenians, led by Demosthenes, also showed some resistance before being put down.
Invasion of Persia and beyond
334 B.C.E. Granicus333 BC - Issus 332 - Siege of Tyre and Gaza332 331 Egypt - Founded Alexandria 330 328 North East326 - Reached Indus River324 - Set up capital in Babylon (located in modern-day Iraq)
Died of a fever in 323 B.C.E. at age 33
Alexanders EmpireFell apart after Alexanders deathGenerals fought for control of empireEmpire dividedEgypt PtolemyMost of Asian empire SeleucusMacedonia and Greece AntigonusNew dynasties ruled for hundreds of years until conquered by Rome
Alexanders Impact on World HistorySpread Greek culture beyond the GreeksPan-HellenismFounded numerous citiesMarried a daughter of DariusEncouraged his soldiers to take Persian wivesWorshiped foreign gods and goddessesRecognized as foreign incarnations of Greek godsEncouraged trade throughout his empireSettled Greeks throughout his empireGreek culture became Hellenistic as it spread and mingled with other cultures
Alexandria, EgyptCity in Egypt founded by, and named after, Alexander the GreatPtolemy came to rule Egypt after Alexanders deathPtolemies built a university in Alexandria Library of AlexandriaIncluded 700,000 volumes written on papyrusCenter of research and scholarship
Hellenistic ScienceMany practical, useful inventions
Euclid (lived circa 300 B.C.E.)Greek who lived and worked in Alexandria, EgyptFather of GeometryTheorems in plane geometry (Euclidean geometry)
Archimedes (circa 287 B.C.E.-circa 212 B.C.E.)Greek who lived and worked in SicilyPrinciple of specific gravityLaw of floating bodiesUsed levers, pulleys, and screws to build things such as catapults
Hellenistic ScienceEratosthenes (circa 276 B.C.E.-circa 195 B.C.E.)Greek born in modern-day LibyaGeographer and librarian of Alexandria, EgyptClosely determined the earths diameterMeasured earths distance from the sun with 99% accuracyUsed lines of longitude and latitude on a mapBelieved earth is roundOne could sail India by sailing westAristarchus of Samos (310 B.C.E.-circa 230 B.C.E.)Heliocentric model first to advocate that the earth revolves around the sunHipparchus (circa 190 B.C.E.-120 B.C.E.)Invented plane and spherical trigonometryPredicted eclipses of the moon and sun
Hellenistic Art and ArchitectureArchitectureBuilt many impressive public buildingsBaths, libraries, palaces, theatersPharos lighthouse of Alexandria 400 feet highArtMore lifelike showed more expressionAction, grief, motion, painThe Death of Laocoon, Winged Victory of Samothrace, Venus de Milo
Hellenistic PhilosophyCynics (Cynicism)Diogenes (412-323 B.C.E.)Hatred of power and worldly possessions
Stoics (Stoicism)Zeno of Citium (334-262 B.C.E.)Acceptance, courage, patienceRoman emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180 C.E.) was a Stoic philosopher (wrote Confessions)Stoic belief in human brotherhood influenced Christianity
Epicureans (Epicureanism)Epicurus (341-270 B.C.E.)No life after deathPleasure and pain measure what is good and badLife is to be enjoyed, particularly by searching for knowledge
Hellenistic LiteratureFew Hellenistic works had enduring valuePreserved classical Greek heritageSpread throughout Alexanders former empireParticularly at Alexandria, EgyptMiddle East kept and preserved Greek heritage during the fall of Rome and Europes Dark AgesEuropeans rediscovered this Greek heritage during the Crusades
Hellenistic Culture in the Roman WorldGreek cities of southern Italy piqued Roman interest in Greek cultureMany southern Italian, Sicilian, and other Mediterranean cities which came under Roman control had been founded by GreeksRomans spread Greek culture throughout their own empireMuch Roman art generally copied Greek art