a new kind of war
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DESCRIPTIONThe Great War. A New Kind of War. Leaders made decisions. Young men rushed to enlist, cheered on by their elders and women. War seemed like an exciting adventure!. 1914. Was it? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
A New Kind of War
A New Kind of WarThe Great WarLeaders made decisions. Young men rushed to enlist, cheered on by their elders and women.War seemed like an exciting adventure!Was it?British diplomat, Edward Grey: The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime.1914 Can you protect yourself against the air?The Inside StoryThe exhausted British soldiers were taking a break from the bitter fighting with German forces. In the distance, they could see the other end of their own line in the trenches. This section was occupied by British allies, including soldiers from France and from the French colony of Algeria. What is going on?The resting British soldiers noticed a curious thing. Floating through the air from the German lines toward the Allied trenches was a slow-moving cloud of yellowish smoke. Soon, from the direction of the strange cloud, came a steady stream of running men, throwing away clothing, equipment, and anything else that might slow them down.POISON FROM THE SKY!The British were at first horrified at what they thought was the cowardly retreat of the French and Algerians. They soon learned, however, that the terrified men had good reason to run. The yellow cloud that had floated into their trenches was chlorine gas, a deadly poison. When inhaled, the gas damages lung tissue and causes victims to cough violently and choke. In some cases, the gas kills!The poison gas used against the Allied troops was one of many new weapons that first appeared in World War I. Together, these weapons produced a horrifying level of death and destruction.Fighting in 1914Germanys plans for a swift victory in France failed. By the end of 1914, the Great War had become a bloody stalemate.1914Early BattlesBeginning in August 1914, German troops fought the French and the British in a series of clashes known as the Battle of the Frontiers. Both sides suffered heavy casualities BUT the result was a German victory.Meanwhile, Russia attacked Germany from the east.Although the Russians failed to defeat the Germans, it did succeed in distracting the German advance on France.Trench WarfareIn the Battle of the Marne in early September 1914, Allied troops succeeded in driving the German forces back. After retreating, German forces dug a series of trenches, or deep ditches, along the Aisne (AYN) River and awaited the Allied attack.Monkey see, monkey do!Allied forces built trenches of their own!As a result, German and Allied forces would change little in the coming months.This deadlocked region in northern France would become known as the Western Front.The World War I Battlefield:Must have technologiesPoison gas and other unprecedented weapons were a response to the frustration of the massive deadlock!!!!
Not a new ideaBUT non one had ever experienced it on such a large scaleMiserable living conditionsFlooding and mudRemoval of corpses not always immediately possibleLiceRatsOccasionally, troops would be ordered over the top of their trench to attack the enemy.Jump out of their trenchSprint across no mans landMany, shot, died there. (bodies left where they fell!)Prize for making it to the enemys trench? Being bayoneted, of course!!!!11Poison GasKilled or injured thousandsLimited value why?Could backfire wind shifts could blow gas back to those launching it!Blocked by gas masks!
Armored TanksPioneered by the BritishReliability issues prohibited it from making a contribution until later in the war.Benefits: could flatten barbed wire and cross enemy trenches.
AircraftUnlike tanks, were useful from the beginning.Initially used to observe enemy positions.Eventually mechanics attached machine guns.Pilots began to drop bombs.New, faster planes proved useful in attacking battlefields (trenches) and cities.
Machine gunsFired hundreds of bullets each minute.Used to defend trenches against enemy attacks!
FlamethrowersSheets of fire
War on the Home Front!Total War waged! (type of war requiring the use of all of a countrys resources)Factories began to produce military equipment.Civilians conserved food and other goods for military use.Propaganda: posters, pamphlets, and articles!Women in World War IOnly a few hundred actually fought as soldiers nearly all in the Russian army. They were the exception!!!!Most had TWO options:Assist on the home frontWork as nurses for the armed forcesContributions helped transform public views of what women could do including suffrage!Battles on the Western FrontThe Italian Front: first move was to attack Austria-Hungary little progress madeThe Battle of Verdun: German assault on France; from February 1916 to Dec., France lost 400,000 with Germany losses almost the same.The Battle of the Somme: launched by the British in June 1916; intended to pull Germans away from Verdun; on the first day of fighting alone, Britain suffered nearly 60,000 casualities.The Third Battle of Ypres (ee pruh): 1917 after three years of battle in Western Europe, the front lines were virtually unchanged.War Around the WorldOver 30 countries officially chose sides.Armenian GenocideGallopoli CampaignOttoman Empire Joined the Central Powers in late 1914Allies attacked in the Spring of 1915.After months of fighting and nearly 200,000 casualities, the Allies gave up!
Asia and AfricaJapan declared war on Germany in 1914 as part of a military agreement with Great Britain.Japanese forces captured German colonies in China and the Pacific. British and French troops attacked German colonies in Africa. Allied colonies contributed soldiers India, Australia, Canada, New Zealand.Literature, Hollywood, and HistoryAll Quiet on the Western FrontA classic must-see!!!!!