world war i a new kind of war

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World War I A New Kind of War. Chapter 26 section 2. Charlie Chaplin. Schlieffen Plan. Germany’s plan to avoid a two front war First phase was to invade France through Neutral Belgium. Quickly Defeat France before Russia could mobilize. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • World War IA New Kind of WarChapter 26 section 2*

  • Charlie Chaplin*

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  • Schlieffen Plan Germanys plan to avoid a two front warFirst phase was to invade France through Neutral Belgium.Quickly Defeat France before Russia could mobilize

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  • By violating the neutrality agreement signed between Belgium & Germany, England declared war on August 4th.This became known as the Rape of BelgiumWith Great Britain entering the war on the side of the Allies, Germany was now forced to fight the two front war they had been trying to avoid.The War becomes a stalemate

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  • Nations take SidesBy mid-August 1914, two sides at war throughout Europe Central PowersGermany, Austria-Hungary (and other nations)AlliesBritain, France, Russia (and other nations)*

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  • Invasion of FranceThe German army quickly advances towards the outskirts of ParisEarly Sept., 600 Taxies are rushed back and forth to the front lines moving the troops*

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  • First Battle of the Marne September 5 12, 1914French Soldiers during the battle*

  • German soldiers during the 1st Battle of the Marne*

  • The French and the British troops are able to hold the Germans at the Marne RiverThis battle ended Germanys hope for a quick victoryBoth sides will begin to dig deep trenches in order to protect their armiesBattle lines will barely change over the next four years*

  • Western Front as of 1916*

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  • War in the TrenchesTwo systems of trenches stretched hundreds of miles, western EuropeMillions of Allied and Central Powers soldiers in trenches of Western FrontBattles result in many deaths, small land gains

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  • Life in trenches is miserable, difficult, - Rain produced deep puddles, mud - Lice, rats, bad sanitation constant problems - Removing dead bodies often impossible

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  • Over the TopSoldiers ordered out of trenches to attack enemySprinting across area known as no-mans-land a deadly gameThousands on both sides died, cut down by enemy guns*

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  • New WeaponsNew technology led to greater numbers being killed more effectivelyNeither side able to make significant advances on enemys trenchesEach side turned to new weapons like poison gas

    http://www.history.com/videos/wwi-firsts#wwi-firsts *

  • Poison GasFirst used by the Germans, but eventually used by all.There were different types of gas. Some caused blindness, severe blisters, or death by chokingValue limited, must be careful of the windboth sides developed gas masks

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  • Additional Weapons Rapid-fire machine guns in wide use Artillery and high-explosive shells, enormous destructive power*

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  • Artillery piece of the 320th. Artillery piece,"Cyclone ", and its escort on rail, registered ALPG.32. 9. P.3038. Hogstade. (Belgium September 5th, 1917). *

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  • TanksTanks pioneered by British and first used in 1916, in the Battle of the SommeCould cross rough battlefield terrain (no man lands)But Reliability was a problem

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  • AircraftAircraft most useful At beginning of war, mostly for observation1915 Zeppelins were used to bomb the coast of England Soon had machine guns, bombs attachedFaster airplanes useful in attacking cities, battlefields*

  • Zeppelins*

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  • Airplanes*

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  • Germanys Red Barron: Manfred von Richthofen

    Is credit for 80 kills against the Allies pilots*

  • US top ace, Eddie Rickenbacker, with 26 victories. He survived the war.

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  • A Sopwith Camel rising from the flight deck of a lighter towed into the wind at top speed by a destroyer. This was the method used by Lt. S.D.Culley to take off when he shot down a Zeppelin off the borkum Riff lightship on 11th August 1918.*

  • Submarines *

  • AKA U-boats from the German word Unterseeboot First used by the Germans in 1914Primary weapons were the torpedoesAllies ships were forced to travel in convoys to protect the merchant ships transporting supplies from the U.S. to Europe.

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  • The Eastern FrontEastern battles were fought between the Russians and Serbs against the AH and Germans along the German-Russian BorderThe line was more mobile than in the west, because trenches were used very littleIt was just as deadly, slaughter and stalemate were just as common.*

  • Battle of Tannenberg First battle on the Eastern Front, August 26-30, 1914The Russians are defeated after invading E. Prussia Out of 150,000 men only 10,000 escaped, 92,000 were taken PrisonerThe Germans lost 20,000 menNews of the defeat is kept out of the press.*

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  • Russia StrugglesRussias war effort was suffering by 1916, many casualties, few supplies, due to slow industrializationHuge size of Russian army keeps it a formidable forceMost importantly they prevent Germany from sending more troops to the Western Front *

  • Southern Europe & BalkansIn 1915, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers against rival SerbiaRomania joined the Allies to gain land in HungaryItaly joined the Allies to gain land in Austria, by a secret treaty. *

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  • War around the WorldJapan joined the Allies as an excuse to capture German outpost in China and the PacificAllies take control of remaining German holdings in Asia, AfricaBritain and France use their colonial subjects to help in war effort

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  • Ottoman EmpireBecause of its strategic location they were a desirable allyIF they had sided with the Allies, the Central Powers would have been completely encircled.Late October 1914, the Turks joined the Central powers*

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  • The Gallipoli Campaign*

  • Cutting off crucial Allied supply line to Russia. Through the Dardanelles between the Mediterranean and Black Sea.Allies sent British, Indian, Australian and New Zealander troops to capture Ottoman Dardanelles strait in February 1915They battled for 10 months, defeated, they are out in January 1916, after losing 200,000 + troops

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  • Armenians CrisisA ethnic group living in the Caucasus Mountains, part of them lived in Russia the rest in the Ottoman EmpireAs Christians they were a minority, and did not have the same rights as MuslimsSome Turkish Armenians joined the Russians.*

  • The Ottomans used this as a reason to deport the entire population to Syria and MesopotamiaDuring this time period 600,000 to 1.5 million died Many were killed by planned massacres; others were starved by marching with no food (Genocide)Others immigrated to other countries, Leaving none in their native lands*

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  • 3rd Front for the Ottomans1916, in the Middle East, Arab nationalist revolted, led by Husayn ibn Ali The raids are successful and the Ottomans lose territory and eventually Baghdad*

  • Lawrence of Arabia British Colonel T.E. Lawrence sent to support the Arab revoltLead guerrilla raids against the Turks*

    http://web.viu.ca/davies/H482.WWI/cartoons.humour.of.war.htm**Frontline trench, observer. French serviceman at work in the trenches. Woods of Hirtzbach. (Haut-Rhin. France. June 16th, 1917). http://www.worldwaronecolorphotos.com/Although color photography was around prior to 1903, the Lumire brothers, Auguste and Louis, patented the process in 1903 and developed the first color film in 1907. The French army was the primary source of color photos during the course of World War One.*Frontline trenches. Group of French servicemen, "Poilus", in front of the entrance of a cote. Woods of Hirtzbach. (Haut-Rhin. France. June 16th, 1917). From David Latapie (merci beaucoup!) "Poilus" (hairy) is the nickname to French WWI soldiers, since they could not afford the luxury of regular shaving. It is a term of affection, especially now. *Trench by front line, observation post. Seen through barbed wires. In the foreground, sandbags are seen. Wood of Hirtzbach. (Haut-Rhin. France. June 16th, 1917). *Bucy-le-Long, section of gunners, 4 soldiers in ruins, pulling. Bucy-le-Long, district of Soissons. (Soissons. Aisne. France. 1917). *Nieuport biplane on the ground. (Soissons. Aisne. France. 1917). http://www.worldwaronecolorphotos.com/html/gallica_81-2_h_14.htmlhttp://faculty.umf.maine.edu/~walters/web%20104/ww1%20lusitania%20cartoon.jpeg*